조기낙엽에 따른 참다래 착과 유목의 당년 재발아와 익년 초기생장

Regrowth of Axillary Buds the Current Season and Early Growth and Development the Following Year in Fruiting Young Kiwifruit as Affected by Early Defoliation

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  • ABSTRACT

    한반도에 태풍내습이 빈번한 7, 8, 9월에 참다래(키위)가 조기낙엽되었을 때 당년 액아의 재발아, 익년발아, 개화 등 수체생장에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 하였다. 비가림조건에서 포트재배(13L)된 골드키위 신품종 ‘골드러쉬’ 착과유목 1-2년생을 대상으로 하고, 적엽처리는 7, 8, 9월에 각각 0(무처리), 50, 100% 잎을 제거하는 것으로 하였다. 적엽처리 30 일뒤 액아 재발아율은 적엽수준에 비례하여 증가하였으며, 시기적으로는 7월이 가장 높았고 8월과 9월로 갈수록 낮았다. 전년도 조기낙엽에 따른 이듬해 발아율은 처리간에 차이가 없었다. 무처리구의 주당 평균 결과지율과 결과지당 꽃수는 각각 27.4%와 2-3개였다. 그러나 전년도 8월과 9월의 100% 적엽구의 결과지율과 결과지당 꽃수는 무처리에 비해 크게 감소하였다. 특히, 8월 16일 100% 적엽구에서는 전혀 꽃이 형성되지 않아 태풍에 의해 조기낙엽이 이 시기에 발생할 경우 개화량 감소로 인한 생산량 감소는 불가피할 것으로 판단된다. 참다래 생산농가에서는 7월 이후에 낙엽피해가 발생하지 않도록 반드시 파풍망, 비가림 등 바람피해 예방시설을 갖추어야 할 것으로 판단된다.


    BACKGROUND:

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the unexpected early loss of leaves on a newly-bred kiwifruit on the regrowth of axillary buds the current season and the early growth and development the following year.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    The vines were defoliated on Jul. 18, Aug. 16, and Sep. 17 in 2012 and on Jul. 16, Aug. 13, and Sep. 12 in 2013. The vines were defoliated 0 (control), 50, and 100% of the total number of leaves on a vine. The regrowth of axillary buds at 30 days after defoliation increased in proportion to defoliation degrees regardless of the defoliated time. Defoliation the previous season did not influence percent budbreak the next season. Percentage of floral shoots of the control vines was 27.4%, each bearing 2-3 flowers. In those vines defoliated 100% in August and September, however, percent floral shoots and number of flowers significantly reduced.

    CONCLUSION(S):

    Defoliation in July, August, and September didnot affect percent budbreak the following year regardless of degrees of defoliation. A 100% defoliation in August and September significantly reduced flowering the following year compared to the control; that in August resulted in no floral buds at all.

  • KEYWORD

    Budbreak , Defoliation , Floral shoot , Kiwifruit

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  • [Fig. 1.] Axillary bud regrowth of a young, fruiting ‘Goldrush’ kiwifruit the current season as affected by different degrees of defoliation in July through September in 2012 and 2013. The vines were defoliated 0, 50, and 100% on each date. Percent regrowth, measured on 30 days after defoliation, was calculated with the number of buds regrown out of the total number of axillary buds per vine. Vertical bars indicate standard error of the means, and letters express differences among defoliation degrees (the Duncan test, P≤0.05).
    Axillary bud regrowth of a young, fruiting ‘Goldrush’ kiwifruit the current season as affected by different degrees of defoliation in July through September in 2012 and 2013. The vines were defoliated 0, 50, and 100% on each date. Percent regrowth, measured on 30 days after defoliation, was calculated with the number of buds regrown out of the total number of axillary buds per vine. Vertical bars indicate standard error of the means, and letters express differences among defoliation degrees (the Duncan test, P≤0.05).
  • [Fig. 2.] Budbreak of a young, fruiting ‘Goldrush’ kiwifruit the following spring as affected by defoliation treatments of the previous year. The vines were defoliated 0, 50, and 100% in 2012 and 2013. Vertical bars indicate standard error of the means, and letters express differences among defoliation degrees (the Duncan test, P≤0.05).
    Budbreak of a young, fruiting ‘Goldrush’ kiwifruit the following spring as affected by defoliation treatments of the previous year. The vines were defoliated 0, 50, and 100% in 2012 and 2013. Vertical bars indicate standard error of the means, and letters express differences among defoliation degrees (the Duncan test, P≤0.05).
  • [Fig. 3.] Flowering of a young, fruiting ‘Goldrush’ kiwifruit the following spring as affected by defoliation treatments of the previous year.The vines were defoliated 0, 50, and 100% on each date in 2012. A, percent floral shoot is the number of shoots with flowers out of the total number of shoots grown per vine. B, flower number is the number of flowers per floral shoot. Vertical bars indicate standard error of the means of five replications, and letters express differences among defoliation degrees (the Duncan test, P≤0.05).
    Flowering of a young, fruiting ‘Goldrush’ kiwifruit the following spring as affected by defoliation treatments of the previous year.The vines were defoliated 0, 50, and 100% on each date in 2012. A, percent floral shoot is the number of shoots with flowers out of the total number of shoots grown per vine. B, flower number is the number of flowers per floral shoot. Vertical bars indicate standard error of the means of five replications, and letters express differences among defoliation degrees (the Duncan test, P≤0.05).
  • [Fig. 4.] Vegetative growth of a young, fruiting ‘Goldrush’ kiwifruit, measured 30 days after budbreak the following year as affected by defoliation treatments of the previous year. The vines were defoliated 0, 50, and 100% on each date in 2013. Vertical bars indicate standard error of the means of five replications, and letters express differences among defoliation degrees (the Duncan test, P≤0.05).
    Vegetative growth of a young, fruiting ‘Goldrush’ kiwifruit, measured 30 days after budbreak the following year as affected by defoliation treatments of the previous year. The vines were defoliated 0, 50, and 100% on each date in 2013. Vertical bars indicate standard error of the means of five replications, and letters express differences among defoliation degrees (the Duncan test, P≤0.05).