Novel Discovery of Two Heterotrichid Ciliates, Climacostomum virens and Fabrea salina (Ciliophora: Heterotrichea: Heterotrichida) in Korea

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  • ABSTRACT

    Two heterotrichid ciliates, Climacostomum virens (Ehrenberg, 1838) Stein, 1859 from brackish water and freshwater, and Fabrea salina Henneguy, 1890 from a solar saltern, were collected in Korea. They are novelly investigated in Korea by means of live observation, protargol staining and nuclear small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequencing. Climacostomum virens is characterized by pouch-like body shape, body length of 200-370 μm in vivo, conspicuous cytopharyngeal tube, macronuclei ribbon-like shape, and one to four in number, with or without symbiont algae in cytoplasm, 34-66 somatic kineties, 67-113 adoral zone of membranelles, 8-42 peristomial kineties, 24-37 apical membranelles. SSU rDNA sequence size is 1,591 bp and GC contents 48.52%. Fabrea salina is also characterized by scoop-like body shape with proboscis, body length of 190-240 μm in vivo, one to two rod-shaped macronuclei, oval micronuclei, grayish green cortical granules, 104-186 somatic kineties, 4-8 preoral kineties, 7-19 peristomial kineties and fragmented paroral membrane. SSU rDNA sequence size is 1,598 bp and GC contents 47.50%.


  • KEYWORD

    brackish water , Climacostomum , Fabrea , freshwater , heterotrichs , Korea , morphology , solar saltern

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  • [Table 1.] Morphometry of Climacostomum virens
    Morphometry of Climacostomum virens
  • [Fig. 1.] Climacostomum virens from life (A, B, D-I) and after protargol impregnation (C). A, Typical body shape of brackish water specimen; B, Ventral side view of freshwater specimen with symbiotic algae; C, Ventral view to show macronuclei, somatic, and oral ciliature; D-F, Various body shapes; G, Swarmer stage cell; H, Arrangement of cortical granules; I, Lateral view of ellipsoidal cortical granules. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; CT, cytopharyngeal tube; CV, contractile vacuole; FV, food vacuole; MA, macronuclei; MI, micronuclei; PF, peristomial field; PK, peristomial kinety; SA, symbiotic algae; SK, somatic kinety. Scale bars: A-C=50 μm, E=100 μm, I=5 μm.
    Climacostomum virens from life (A, B, D-I) and after protargol impregnation (C). A, Typical body shape of brackish water specimen; B, Ventral side view of freshwater specimen with symbiotic algae; C, Ventral view to show macronuclei, somatic, and oral ciliature; D-F, Various body shapes; G, Swarmer stage cell; H, Arrangement of cortical granules; I, Lateral view of ellipsoidal cortical granules. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; CT, cytopharyngeal tube; CV, contractile vacuole; FV, food vacuole; MA, macronuclei; MI, micronuclei; PF, peristomial field; PK, peristomial kinety; SA, symbiotic algae; SK, somatic kinety. Scale bars: A-C=50 μm, E=100 μm, I=5 μm.
  • [Fig. 2.] Photomicrographs of Climacostomum virens from life (A-G) and after protargol impregnation (H, I). A, Ventral side view of brackish water specimen with contractile vacuole; B, Ventral side view of freshwater specimen with symbiotic algae and cytopharyngeal tube; C, Oral apparatus to indicate peristomial field and adoral zone of membranelles; D, Apical membranelles and symbiotic algae; E, Swarmer specimen with spherical contractile vacuole and small macronucleus; F, Arrangement of cortical granules in between somatic kineties; G, Lateral view of ellipsoidal cortical granules (arrowheads); H, Whole body to show macronucleus, micronuclei (arrows), somatic and oral ciliature; I, Three macronuclei (arrowheads) of brackish water specimen. apM, apical membranelles; AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; CT, cytopharyngeal tube; CV, contractile vacuole; MA, macronuclei; PF, peristomial field; PK, peristomial kinety; SA, symbiotic algae. Scale bars: A, B=50 μm, C, D=20 μm, E, H=100 μm, F, G=10 μm.
    Photomicrographs of Climacostomum virens from life (A-G) and after protargol impregnation (H, I). A, Ventral side view of brackish water specimen with contractile vacuole; B, Ventral side view of freshwater specimen with symbiotic algae and cytopharyngeal tube; C, Oral apparatus to indicate peristomial field and adoral zone of membranelles; D, Apical membranelles and symbiotic algae; E, Swarmer specimen with spherical contractile vacuole and small macronucleus; F, Arrangement of cortical granules in between somatic kineties; G, Lateral view of ellipsoidal cortical granules (arrowheads); H, Whole body to show macronucleus, micronuclei (arrows), somatic and oral ciliature; I, Three macronuclei (arrowheads) of brackish water specimen. apM, apical membranelles; AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; CT, cytopharyngeal tube; CV, contractile vacuole; MA, macronuclei; PF, peristomial field; PK, peristomial kinety; SA, symbiotic algae. Scale bars: A, B=50 μm, C, D=20 μm, E, H=100 μm, F, G=10 μm.
  • [Table 2.] Morphometry of Fabrea salina
    Morphometry of Fabrea salina
  • [Fig. 3.] Fabrea salina from life (A, B) and after protargol impregnation (C). A, Typical body shape; B, Arrangement and pattern of cortical granules, arrows indicate each somatic kineties; C, Typical impregnated specimen to show macronucleus, micronuclei (arrowheads), somatic and oral ciliature. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; CC, part of condensed cortical granules; FV, food vacuole; MA, macronucleus; P, proboscis; PK, peristomial kinety; PM, paroral membrane; PR, preoral kineties. Scale bars: A, C=50 μm, B=5 μm.
    Fabrea salina from life (A, B) and after protargol impregnation (C). A, Typical body shape; B, Arrangement and pattern of cortical granules, arrows indicate each somatic kineties; C, Typical impregnated specimen to show macronucleus, micronuclei (arrowheads), somatic and oral ciliature. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; CC, part of condensed cortical granules; FV, food vacuole; MA, macronucleus; P, proboscis; PK, peristomial kinety; PM, paroral membrane; PR, preoral kineties. Scale bars: A, C=50 μm, B=5 μm.
  • [Fig. 4.] Photomicrographs of Fabrea salina from life (A, B) and after protargol impregnation (C-F). A, Scoop-like shaped ventral view and additional figure shows original shape in low magnification (×50); B, Arrangement and pattern of cortical granules, brownish pink colored in photomicrographs but grayish green colored to the unaided eye; C, Whole body to show macronucleus, somatic and oral ciliature; D, Detail of oral ciliature and related apparatus; E, Two macronuclei and micronuclei (arrowheads); F, Detail of fibrillar myoneme connected with paroral membrane. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; CC, part of condensed cortical granules; FV, food vacuole; MA, macronucleus; MI, micronuclei; OC, oral cavity; P, proboscis; PK, peristomial kinety; PM, paroral membrane; PR, preoral kineties; SK, somatic kineties. Scale bars: A, C=50 μm, B=10 μm, E=30 μm.
    Photomicrographs of Fabrea salina from life (A, B) and after protargol impregnation (C-F). A, Scoop-like shaped ventral view and additional figure shows original shape in low magnification (×50); B, Arrangement and pattern of cortical granules, brownish pink colored in photomicrographs but grayish green colored to the unaided eye; C, Whole body to show macronucleus, somatic and oral ciliature; D, Detail of oral ciliature and related apparatus; E, Two macronuclei and micronuclei (arrowheads); F, Detail of fibrillar myoneme connected with paroral membrane. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; CC, part of condensed cortical granules; FV, food vacuole; MA, macronucleus; MI, micronuclei; OC, oral cavity; P, proboscis; PK, peristomial kinety; PM, paroral membrane; PR, preoral kineties; SK, somatic kineties. Scale bars: A, C=50 μm, B=10 μm, E=30 μm.