Intraspecific Phylogeny of the Korean Water Deer, Hydropotes inermis argyropus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae)

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  • ABSTRACT

    The water deer, Hydropotes inermis (Cervidae), is native to China and Korea and has two subspecies of the Chinese water deer (Hydropotes inermis inermis) and Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus). To date, only the Korean water deer has been reported in South Korea. In this study, however, an intraspecific phylogeny and haplotype analysis based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I indicated that both Korean and Chinese water deer are found in South Korea. The populations of the two Korean genetic lineages did not show distinct geographic distributions. Further morphological studies on the Korean water deer will be required to confirm its taxonomic status.


  • KEYWORD

    water deer , Hydropotes inermis argyropus , intraspecific phylogeny , taxonomic status , Cervidae

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  • [Table 1.] List of the samples used in this study
    List of the samples used in this study
  • [Fig. 1.] A, Collection localities for the Korean water deer. Further information on the samples is provided in Table 1; B, Intraspecific phylogeny of Korean and Chinese water deer inferred from the neighbor-joining (NJ) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses, based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequences (680 bp). Only the NJ tree is shown in the figure, and the numbers at each node indicate the bootstrap values for the NJ tree (left) and posterior probabilities (shown as percentages) for the BI tree (right). Alces alces and Elaphodus cephalophus were used as outgroup species. The Korean water deer formed two separate clades, regardless of the collection localities.
    A, Collection localities for the Korean water deer. Further information on the samples is provided in Table 1; B, Intraspecific phylogeny of Korean and Chinese water deer inferred from the neighbor-joining (NJ) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses, based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequences (680 bp). Only the NJ tree is shown in the figure, and the numbers at each node indicate the bootstrap values for the NJ tree (left) and posterior probabilities (shown as percentages) for the BI tree (right). Alces alces and Elaphodus cephalophus were used as outgroup species. The Korean water deer formed two separate clades, regardless of the collection localities.
  • [Fig. 2.] Haplotype patterns of Hydropotes inermis. In Korean water deer, two different haplotypes KH1 and KH2 were found; there was no sequence difference between KH1 and the Chinese CH1 haplotype.
    Haplotype patterns of Hydropotes inermis. In Korean water deer, two different haplotypes KH1 and KH2 were found; there was no sequence difference between KH1 and the Chinese CH1 haplotype.
  • [Table 2.] Pairwise genetic distances between the Korean and Chinese water deer haplotypes
    Pairwise genetic distances between the Korean and Chinese water deer haplotypes