Optimal Timing and Duration of Cold Application for Breaking Diapause in Queens of the Bumblebee Bombus ignitus

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  • ABSTRACT

    Bumblebees are important pollinators of crops and wildflowers. The Korean native bumblebee, Bombus ignitus, undergoes one generation per year, and induction of artificial hibernation is essential for year-round rearing of the bumblebee. Keeping queens under cold treatment conditions for several mo is an effective method for terminating their diapause and promoting colony development. In the present study, we investigated how the timing and duration of chilling affect the artificial hibernation of B. ignitus queens. In the timing assessment, cold treatment was instituted at 12 d, 40 d, or 100 d after eclosion under a constant temperature of 5℃ and 80% humidity. The queens that entered cold treatment at 12 d after emergence evidenced the highest survival rates: 86.7% at two mo, 73.3% at three mo, and 46.4% at 4 mo. Survival rates were reduced under storage conditions at 12 d, 40 d, and 100 d after emergence. When queens were subjected to chilling at 8 d, 12 d, or 16 d after eclosion with constant 80% humidity, the queens stored at 12 d after eclosion exhibited the highest survival rates, which were 84.6 at one mo, 25.0% at two mo, and 7.9% at three mo. In regards to the duration of the cold period, the queens that hibernated for at least two mo evidenced optimal colony development rates. The rates of oviposition, colony foundation, and progeny-queen production of queens hibernated for two mo were 60.0%, 30.0%, and 13.3%, respectively. These values were 6.0 to 13.3 times higher than those in the queens that hibernated for 15 d. Therefore, a cold period of at least 2 mo applied 12 d after emergence were found to be the most favorable conditions for diapause break in B. ignitus queens.


  • KEYWORD

    Bumblebee , Bombus ignitus , Hibernation , Cold time , Cold period , Survival rate , Oviposition , Colony development

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  • [Fig. 1.] Survival rate of B. ignitus queens at different artificial hibernation chilling times. The cold treatment was initiated at 5℃ and was performed at over 80% humidity. Mating occurred 5 d after emergence. Thirty queens were allotted for the different chilling time regimes. There were significant differences between different timings of cold application and durations at p<0.0001 using the Chisquare test.
    Survival rate of B. ignitus queens at different artificial hibernation chilling times. The cold treatment was initiated at 5℃ and was performed at over 80% humidity. Mating occurred 5 d after emergence. Thirty queens were allotted for the different chilling time regimes. There were significant differences between different timings of cold application and durations at p<0.0001 using the Chisquare test.
  • [Fig. 2.] Survival rate of B. ignitus queens chilled at 8 d, 12 d, and 16 d after eclosion. The temperature was 5℃ and the treatment was performed at over 80% humidity. Mating occurred 5 d after eclosion. Thirty queens were allotted for each experimental chilling time regime, with three replications. There were significant differences in different chilling times at one mo after cold treatment at p<0.001 using the Chi-square test.
    Survival rate of B. ignitus queens chilled at 8 d, 12 d, and 16 d after eclosion. The temperature was 5℃ and the treatment was performed at over 80% humidity. Mating occurred 5 d after eclosion. Thirty queens were allotted for each experimental chilling time regime, with three replications. There were significant differences in different chilling times at one mo after cold treatment at p<0.001 using the Chi-square test.
  • [Fig. 3.] Survival rate of B. ignitus queens after one month at different chilling times and temperatures. Thirty queens were allotted for each experimental chilling temperature regime. There were significant differences between cold-application times and temperatures after cold treatment during one mo at p<0.05 using the Chi-square test.
    Survival rate of B. ignitus queens after one month at different chilling times and temperatures. Thirty queens were allotted for each experimental chilling temperature regime. There were significant differences between cold-application times and temperatures after cold treatment during one mo at p<0.05 using the Chi-square test.
  • [Fig. 4.] Survival rate of B. ignitus queens after two mo at coldapplication times and temperatures. Thirty queens were allotted for each experimental chilling temperature regime. There were significant differences between cold-application times and temperatures after cold treatment during two mo at p<0.001 using the Chi-square test.
    Survival rate of B. ignitus queens after two mo at coldapplication times and temperatures. Thirty queens were allotted for each experimental chilling temperature regime. There were significant differences between cold-application times and temperatures after cold treatment during two mo at p<0.001 using the Chi-square test.
  • [Fig. 5.] Survival rate and weight less rate of B. ignitus queens at different cold durations. Cold treatment was initiated 12 d after emergence at 5℃ and was performed at 80% humidity. Thirty queens were allotted for each of the chilling duration regimes. There were significant differences in the survival rates in the different chilling durations at a significance level of p < 0.001 using the Chi-squared test.
    Survival rate and weight less rate of B. ignitus queens at different cold durations. Cold treatment was initiated 12 d after emergence at 5℃ and was performed at 80% humidity. Thirty queens were allotted for each of the chilling duration regimes. There were significant differences in the survival rates in the different chilling durations at a significance level of p < 0.001 using the Chi-squared test.
  • [Fig. 6.] Colony development of B. ignitus queens at different cold durations. Statistically significant differences were noted in the rate of oviposition among B. ignitus reared after artificial hibernation at different cold durations at p < 0.001 using the Chi-square test.
    Colony development of B. ignitus queens at different cold durations. Statistically significant differences were noted in the rate of oviposition among B. ignitus reared after artificial hibernation at different cold durations at p < 0.001 using the Chi-square test.