Culture study on the hybrid by interspecific crossing between Porphyra pseudolinearis and P. dentata (Bangiales, Rhodophyta), two dioecious species in culture

  • cc icon
  • ABSTRACT

    Physiological studies on the hybrid by crossing between two dioecious species, Porphyra pseudolinearis and P. dentata from Korea were conducted at constant temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C), at photon flux densities (10, 20, 40,and 80 ㎛ol m-2 s-1) under photoperiods (14 L : 10 D and 10 L : 14 D). In the hybrid, higher growth of conchocelis was observed at 20 and 40 ㎛ol m-2 s-1 under 14 L : 10 D. Conchosporangial branches were produced under 10-80 ㎛ol m-2 s-1 at only 25°C, and were abundant when the conchocelis was cultured under 10 L : 14 D. Foliose thalli of the hybrid grew well at the conditions of 10-20°C, 10 L : 14 D and 15-20°C, 14 L : 10 D. The foliose thalli grew very slowly at 5°C and 30°C,respectively. No archeospores were observed at any culture conditions. Spermatangial and zygotosporangial sori were formed at the marginal portion of mature thallus. Zygotospores from the hybrid were released at 10-20°C under both photoperiods, and gave rise to form conchocelis filament. Monoecious thalli were observed at 10°C under 14 L : 10 D.Neither monospores nor protothalli were produced from the conchocelis in culture.


  • KEYWORD

    Bangiales , hybrid , interspecific crossing , physiology , Porphyra dentata , Porphyra pseudolinearis , Rhodophyta

  • 1. Avila M, Santelices B, McLachlan J 1986 Photoperiod and temperature regulation of the life history of Porphyra columbina (Rhodophyta Bangiales) from central Chile [Can. J. Bot] Vol.64 P.1867-1872 google doi
  • 2. Chang T, Zheng B 1960 Porphyra haitanensis a new species of Porphyra from Fukien [Acta Bot. Sin.] Vol.9 P.32-36 google
  • 3. Hus H. T. A 1902 An account of the species of Porphyra found on the pacific coast of north America [Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 3rd Ser. Bot] Vol.2 P.173-241 google
  • 4. Hwang M. S 1994 Taxonomic studies of genus Porphyra of Korea P.277 google
  • 5. Iwasaki H, Sasaki N 1971 The conchocelis-phase of Porphyra suborbiculata forma latifolia [Proc. Int. Seaweed Symp] Vol.7 P.364-367 google
  • 6. Kang J. W 1966 On the geographical distribution of marine algae in Korea [Bull. Pusan Fish. Coll] Vol.7 P.1-125 google
  • 7. Kapraun D. F, Lemus A. J 1987 Field and culture studies of Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia Oliveira Filho et Coll (Bangiales Rhodophyta) from Isla de Margarita Venezuela [Bot. Mar] Vol.30 P.483-490 google doi
  • 8. Kapraun D. F, Luster D. G 1980 Field and culture studies of Porphyra rosengurtii Coll et Cox (Rhodophyta Bangiales) from North Carolina [Bot. Mar] Vol.23 P.449-457 google
  • 9. Kim N. G 1999 Culture studies of Porphyra dentata and P. pseudolinearis (Bangiales Rhodophyta) two dioecious species from Korea [Hydrobiologia] Vol.398/399 P.127-135 google
  • 10. Kurogi M, Akiyama K 1966 Effects of water temperature on the growth and maturation of conchocelis-thallus in several species of Porphyra [Bull. Tohoku Reg. Fish. Res. Lab] Vol.26 P.77-89 google
  • 11. Lee I. K, Kang J. W 1986 A check list of marine algae in Korea [Korean J. Phycol] Vol.1 P.311-325 google
  • 12. Lindstrom S. C, Cole K. M 1992 A revision of the species of Porphyra (Rhodophyta: Bangiales) occurring in British Columbia and adjacent waters [Can. J. Bot] Vol.70 P.2066-2075 google doi
  • 13. Lindstrom S. C, Cole K. M 1993 The systematics of Porphyra: character evolution in closely related species [Hydrobiologia] Vol.260/261 P.151-157 google
  • 14. McLachlan J, Stein J. R 1973 Growth media-marine. In Handbook of Phycological Methods: Culture Methods Growth Measurements P.25-51 google
  • 15. Niwa K, Miura A, Shin J. -A, Aruga Y 1993 Characterization and genetic analysis of the violet type pigmentation mutant of Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (Bangiales Rhodophyta) [Korean J. Phycol] Vol.8 P.217-230 google
  • 16. Notoya M, Kikuchi N, Matsuo M, Aruga Y, Miura A 1993 Culture studies of four species of Porphyra (Rhodophyta) from Japan [Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi] Vol.59 P.431-436 google
  • 17. Ohme M, Miura A 1988 Tetrad analysis in conchospore germlings of Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta Bangiales) [Plant Sci] Vol.57 P.135-140 google doi
  • 18. Perestenko L. P 1982 Species generis Porphyra Ag. in Maribus orientaris extremi URSS. I [Novitates systematicae plantarum non vascularium tomus] Vol.19 P.16-29 google
  • 19. Scagel R. F, Gabrielson P. W, Garbary D. J, Golden L, Hawkes M. W, Lindstrom S. C, Oliveira J. C, Widdowson T. B 1989 A synopsis of the benthic marine algae of British Columbia Southeast Alaska Washington and Oregon: phycological contribution 3 P.532 google
  • 20. Shin J. -A 1999 Crossing between Porphyra yezoensis and P. tenera [Algae] Vol.14 P.73-77 google
  • 21. Shin J. A, Miura A 1995 Contents of alanine and glutamic acid in the new variety bred by interspecific crossing between Porphyra tenera and P. yezoensis (Bangiales Rhodophyta) [J. Aomori Univ. Aomori Jr. Coll] Vol.18 P.95-100 google
  • 22. Shin J. -A, Nishimoto H, Miura A 1996 Contents of photosynthetic pigments in a new cultivar bred by interspecific crossing between Porphyra tenera and P. yezoensis (Bangiales Rhodophyta): preliminary report [Algae] Vol.11 P.389-390 google
  • 23. Suto S 1963 Intergeneric and interspecific crossings of the lavers (Porphyra) [Bull. Fish. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish] Vol.29 P.739-748 google
  • 24. Tanaka T 1952 The systematic study of the Japanese Protoflorideae [Mem. Fac. Fish. Kagoshima Univ] Vol.2 P.1-92 google
  • 25. Tseng C. K 1948 Marine algae of Hongkong 7: the order Bangiales [Lingnan Sci. J] Vol.22 P.121-131 google
  • 26. Ueda S 1932 Taxonomic studies on the Japanese Porphyra [J. Imp. Fish. Inst] Vol.28 P.1-45 google
  • 27. Waaland J. R, Dickson L. G 1983 Photoperiodic control of conchospore maturation and release in Porphyra abbottae and Porphyra perforata Rhodophyta [J. Phycol] Vol.19 P.6 google
  • 28. Waaland J. R, Dickson L. G, Duffield E. C. S 1990 Conchospore production and seasonal occurrence of some Porphyra species (Bangiales Rhodophyta) in Washington State [Hydrobiologia] Vol.204/205 P.453-459 google
  • 29. Wynne M. J 1972 The genus Porphyra at Amchitka island Aleutians [Proc. Int. Seaweed Symp] Vol.7 P.100-104 google
  • [Fig. 1.] Life history of hybrid by crossing between Porphyra pseudolinearis and P. dentata. (A) Zygotospores liberating from mature hybrid foliose thallus by crossing between Porphyra pseudolinearis and P. dentata in culture. (B) Germinating spore showing developing conchocelis from zygotospore. (C) Free-living conchocelis colony grown at 20°C and 80 ㎛ol m-2 s-1 under 14 L : 10 D. (D) Conchosporangial branch after 3 weeks at 25°C and 40 ㎛ol m-2 s-1 under 10 L : 14 D. (E) Conchospore liberated from conchosporangia. (F) Sporlings germinated from conchospore. (G) Surface view of spermatangia. (H) Surface view of zygotosporangia. (I) Spermatangia in cross-section. (J) Zygotosporangia in cross-section. (K) Entire marginal part of hybrid foliose thallus. (L) Marginal portion of frond showing an only microscopic spinulate process. (M) Basal part of young foliose thallus with microscopic spinulate processes. (N & O) Foliose thalli of 15 weeks old grown in culture showing different thallus shapes under 14 L : 10 D (N) and 10 L : 14 D (O) respectively; (a) 5°C (b) 10°C (c) 15°C (d) 20°C (e) 25°C. (P) Monoecious thalli after 10 weeks at 10°C and 40 ㎛ol m-2 s-1 under 14 L : 10 D. Scale bars represent: A 10 mm; B D & L 5 ㎛; C 50 ㎛; E & F 10 ㎛; G-K & M 20 ㎛; N & O 30 mm; P 10 mm.
    Life history of hybrid by crossing between Porphyra pseudolinearis and P. dentata. (A) Zygotospores liberating from mature hybrid foliose thallus by crossing between Porphyra pseudolinearis and P. dentata in culture. (B) Germinating spore showing developing conchocelis from zygotospore. (C) Free-living conchocelis colony grown at 20°C and 80 ㎛ol m-2 s-1 under 14 L : 10 D. (D) Conchosporangial branch after 3 weeks at 25°C and 40 ㎛ol m-2 s-1 under 10 L : 14 D. (E) Conchospore liberated from conchosporangia. (F) Sporlings germinated from conchospore. (G) Surface view of spermatangia. (H) Surface view of zygotosporangia. (I) Spermatangia in cross-section. (J) Zygotosporangia in cross-section. (K) Entire marginal part of hybrid foliose thallus. (L) Marginal portion of frond showing an only microscopic spinulate process. (M) Basal part of young foliose thallus with microscopic spinulate processes. (N & O) Foliose thalli of 15 weeks old grown in culture showing different thallus shapes under 14 L : 10 D (N) and 10 L : 14 D (O) respectively; (a) 5°C (b) 10°C (c) 15°C (d) 20°C (e) 25°C. (P) Monoecious thalli after 10 weeks at 10°C and 40 ㎛ol m-2 s-1 under 14 L : 10 D. Scale bars represent: A 10 mm; B D & L 5 ㎛; C 50 ㎛; E & F 10 ㎛; G-K & M 20 ㎛; N & O 30 mm; P 10 mm.
  • [Fig. 2.] Growth of hybrid conchocelis colonies by crossing between Porphyra pseudolinearis and P. dentata at five temperatures (5-25°C) and photon flux densities (10-80 ㎛ol m-2 s-1) under 14 L : 10 D and 10 L : 14 D. Vertical bars are standard deviations.
    Growth of hybrid conchocelis colonies by crossing between Porphyra pseudolinearis and P. dentata at five temperatures (5-25°C) and photon flux densities (10-80 ㎛ol m-2 s-1) under 14 L : 10 D and 10 L : 14 D. Vertical bars are standard deviations.
  • [Fig. 3.] Formation rates of conchosporangial branch by crossing between Porphyra pseudolinearis and P. dentata at 25°C and photon flux densities (10-80 ㎛ol m-2 s-1) under 14 L : 10 D and 10 L : 14 D. Percentage of conchocelis colonies with conchosporangial branches.
    Formation rates of conchosporangial branch by crossing between Porphyra pseudolinearis and P. dentata at 25°C and photon flux densities (10-80 ㎛ol m-2 s-1) under 14 L : 10 D and 10 L : 14 D. Percentage of conchocelis colonies with conchosporangial branches.
  • [Fig. 4.] Growth of hybrid foliose thallus by crossing between Porphyra pseudolinearis and P. dentata at five temperatures (5-25°C) and 40 ㎛ol m-2 s-1 under 14 L : 10 D and 10 L : 14 D. Vertical bars are standard deviations.
    Growth of hybrid foliose thallus by crossing between Porphyra pseudolinearis and P. dentata at five temperatures (5-25°C) and 40 ㎛ol m-2 s-1 under 14 L : 10 D and 10 L : 14 D. Vertical bars are standard deviations.
  • [Fig.5.] Liberation of spermatia and zygotospores in relation to the age of cultured hybrid foliose thallus by crossing between Porphyra pseudolinearis and P. dentata at five temperatures (5-25°C) and 40 ㎛ol m-2 s-1 under 14 L : 10 D and 10 L : 14 D. Open space bars neither spermatia nor zygotospores liberated; horizontal stripe space spermatia liberated; vertical stripe space spermatia and zygotospores liberated; S and Z refer to spermatia and zygotospores respectively.
    Liberation of spermatia and zygotospores in relation to the age of cultured hybrid foliose thallus by crossing between Porphyra pseudolinearis and P. dentata at five temperatures (5-25°C) and 40 ㎛ol m-2 s-1 under 14 L : 10 D and 10 L : 14 D. Open space bars neither spermatia nor zygotospores liberated; horizontal stripe space spermatia liberated; vertical stripe space spermatia and zygotospores liberated; S and Z refer to spermatia and zygotospores respectively.
  • [Fig. 6.] Relationship between blade length and width in hybrid by crossing between Porphyra pseudolinearis and P. dentata at five temperatures (5-25°C) and 40 ㎛ol m-2 s-1 under 14 L : 10 D and 10 L : 14 D. Solid triangles are 14 L : 10 D (L); open circles are 10 L : 14 D (S).
    Relationship between blade length and width in hybrid by crossing between Porphyra pseudolinearis and P. dentata at five temperatures (5-25°C) and 40 ㎛ol m-2 s-1 under 14 L : 10 D and 10 L : 14 D. Solid triangles are 14 L : 10 D (L); open circles are 10 L : 14 D (S).