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Anti-fatigue effect of fermented porcine placenta through the regulation of fatigue-associated inflammatory cytokines
  • 비영리 CC BY-NC
  • 비영리 CC BY-NC
ABSTRACT
Anti-fatigue effect of fermented porcine placenta through the regulation of fatigue-associated inflammatory cytokines
KEYWORD
fermented porcine placenta , inflammatory cytokine , caspase-1 , nitric oxide , forced swimming test
참고문헌
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  • [ Fig. 1. ]  FPP inhibits the productions of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in RAW264.7 macrophages. Cells were pretreated with FPP, Leu, or Lys for 1 h and then stimulated with LPS (10 μg/ml) for 24 h. (A-C) The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measured by ELISA method. (D) Cell viability was determined with an MTT assay. Data are mean ± SEM values of three independent experiments performed in duplicate. #p< 0.05: significantly different from the unstimulated cells; *p< 0.05: significantly different from the LPS-stimulated cells. LPS, lipopolysaccharide; FPP, fermented porcine placenta; Leu, leucine; Lys, lysine.
    FPP inhibits the productions of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in RAW264.7 macrophages. Cells were pretreated with FPP, Leu, or Lys for 1 h and then stimulated with LPS (10 μg/ml) for 24 h. (A-C) The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measured by ELISA method. (D) Cell viability was determined with an MTT assay. Data are mean ± SEM values of three independent experiments performed in duplicate. #p< 0.05: significantly different from the unstimulated cells; *p< 0.05: significantly different from the LPS-stimulated cells. LPS, lipopolysaccharide; FPP, fermented porcine placenta; Leu, leucine; Lys, lysine.
  • [ Fig. 2. ]  FPP inhibits the NO production and iNOS expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. Cells were pretreated with FPP, Leu, or Lys for 1 h and then stimulated with LPS (10 μg/ml) for 48 h. (A) NO production was measured by Griess method. Data are mean ± SEM values of three independent experiments performed in duplicate. Cells were pretreated with FPP, Leu, or Lys for 1 h and then stimulated with LPS (10 μg/ml) for 24 h. The total proteins were determined for iNOS expression by Western blotting. Results are representative of three independent experiments. #p< 0.05: significantly different from the unstimulated cells; *p< 0.05: significantly different from the LPS-stimulated cells. LPS, lipopolysaccharide; FPP, fermented porcine placenta; Leu, leucine; Lys, lysine.
    FPP inhibits the NO production and iNOS expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. Cells were pretreated with FPP, Leu, or Lys for 1 h and then stimulated with LPS (10 μg/ml) for 48 h. (A) NO production was measured by Griess method. Data are mean ± SEM values of three independent experiments performed in duplicate. Cells were pretreated with FPP, Leu, or Lys for 1 h and then stimulated with LPS (10 μg/ml) for 24 h. The total proteins were determined for iNOS expression by Western blotting. Results are representative of three independent experiments. #p< 0.05: significantly different from the unstimulated cells; *p< 0.05: significantly different from the LPS-stimulated cells. LPS, lipopolysaccharide; FPP, fermented porcine placenta; Leu, leucine; Lys, lysine.
  • [ Fig. 3. ]  FPP inhibits the caspase-1 activity in RAW264.7 macrophages. Cells were pretreated with FPP, Leu, or Lys for 1 h and then stimulated with LPS (10 μg/ml) for 2 h. (A) Caspase-1 activity was measured by a caspase-1 assay kit. Data are mean ± SEM values of three independent experiments performed in duplicate. (B) Caspase-1 protein levels were analyzed by Western blotting. Results are representative of three independent experiments. #p< 0.05: significantly different from the unstimulated cells; *p< 0.05: significantly different from the LPS-stimulated cells. LPS, lipopolysaccharide; FPP, fermented porcine placenta; Leu, leucine; Lys, lysine.
    FPP inhibits the caspase-1 activity in RAW264.7 macrophages. Cells were pretreated with FPP, Leu, or Lys for 1 h and then stimulated with LPS (10 μg/ml) for 2 h. (A) Caspase-1 activity was measured by a caspase-1 assay kit. Data are mean ± SEM values of three independent experiments performed in duplicate. (B) Caspase-1 protein levels were analyzed by Western blotting. Results are representative of three independent experiments. #p< 0.05: significantly different from the unstimulated cells; *p< 0.05: significantly different from the LPS-stimulated cells. LPS, lipopolysaccharide; FPP, fermented porcine placenta; Leu, leucine; Lys, lysine.
  • [ Fig. 4. ]  FPP inhibits the fatigue-related inflammatory cytokines in serum and spleen after FST. After the FST, (A-C) the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the serum were analyzed by ELISA method. (D-F) The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β,and IL-6 in the spleen were analyzed by ELISA method. Cytokine levels in the spleen were divided according to the total protein levels. Values are the mean ± SEM. FPP: fermented porcine placenta, Lys: lysine, Leu: leucine. *p< 0.05, significantly different from the control mice.
    FPP inhibits the fatigue-related inflammatory cytokines in serum and spleen after FST. After the FST, (A-C) the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the serum were analyzed by ELISA method. (D-F) The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β,and IL-6 in the spleen were analyzed by ELISA method. Cytokine levels in the spleen were divided according to the total protein levels. Values are the mean ± SEM. FPP: fermented porcine placenta, Lys: lysine, Leu: leucine. *p< 0.05, significantly different from the control mice.
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