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Morphology, molecular phylogeny, and pigment characterization of an isolate of the dinoflagellate Pelagodinium bei from Korean waters
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ABSTRACT
Morphology, molecular phylogeny, and pigment characterization of an isolate of the dinoflagellate Pelagodinium bei from Korean waters
KEYWORD
foraminifera , Gymnodinium bei , pelagic symbiont , Suessiaceae , Suessiales
참고문헌
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이미지 / 테이블
  • [ Fig. 1. ]  Micrographs of the isolate taken using optical microscopy. (A) Ventral view illustrating the round to elliptical nucleus (N). (B) Side view. The arrowhead indicates the orange to red eyespot located in the sulcal area. (C) Side view. The arrowheads indicate pyrenoids. Scale bars represent: A-C, 1 μm.
    Micrographs of the isolate taken using optical microscopy. (A) Ventral view illustrating the round to elliptical nucleus (N). (B) Side view. The arrowhead indicates the orange to red eyespot located in the sulcal area. (C) Side view. The arrowheads indicate pyrenoids. Scale bars represent: A-C, 1 μm.
  • [ Fig. 2. ]  Micrographs of the isolate taken using scanning electron microscopy. (A) Hypoconal flange. (B & C) Apical furrow. (D-G) Apical and ventral views. (H) Left view. (I) Right view. (J) Sulcal view. (K & L) Antapical views. X, small squared vesicle. The amphiesmal vesicles were numbered and assigned to their respective series. Scale bars represent: A-L, 1 μm.
    Micrographs of the isolate taken using scanning electron microscopy. (A) Hypoconal flange. (B & C) Apical furrow. (D-G) Apical and ventral views. (H) Left view. (I) Right view. (J) Sulcal view. (K & L) Antapical views. X, small squared vesicle. The amphiesmal vesicles were numbered and assigned to their respective series. Scale bars represent: A-L, 1 μm.
  • [ Fig. 3. ]  Micrographs of the type culture of Pelagodinium bei (RCC #1491) taken using scanning electron microscopy and a schematized view of the sulcal area. (A) Ventral view. (B) Dorsal view. (C-E) Sulcal views. The arrowhead indicates a small amphiesmal vesicle located at the left side of the longitudinal flagellar pore. (F) Drawing of the sulcus. The black circles indicate the location of the flagellar pores of the transversal and longitudinal flagella. The amphiesmal vesicles were numbered and assigned to their respective series. Scale bars represent: A-E, 1 μm.
    Micrographs of the type culture of Pelagodinium bei (RCC #1491) taken using scanning electron microscopy and a schematized view of the sulcal area. (A) Ventral view. (B) Dorsal view. (C-E) Sulcal views. The arrowhead indicates a small amphiesmal vesicle located at the left side of the longitudinal flagellar pore. (F) Drawing of the sulcus. The black circles indicate the location of the flagellar pores of the transversal and longitudinal flagella. The amphiesmal vesicles were numbered and assigned to their respective series. Scale bars represent: A-E, 1 μm.
  • [ Fig. 4. ]  Maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree based on 595 aligned nucleotides of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer rDNA using the GTR + G model with Polarella glacialis as an outgroup taxon. Alignment length includes gaps. The parameters were as follows: assumed nucleotide frequencies A = 0.1893, C = 0.2283, G = 0.2600, and T = 0.3224; substitution rate matrix with G-T = 1.0000, A-C = 0.5967, A-G = 1.7246, A-T = 0.9218, C-G = 0.3420, C-T = 3.2104; proportion of invariable sites = 0.0000 and rates for variable sites assumed to follow a gamma distribution with shape parameter = 0.2878. The numbers at the nodes of the branches indicate the ML bootstrap (left) and Bayesian posterior probability (right) values; only values ≥ 50% or 0.5 are shown.
    Maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree based on 595 aligned nucleotides of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer rDNA using the GTR + G model with Polarella glacialis as an outgroup taxon. Alignment length includes gaps. The parameters were as follows: assumed nucleotide frequencies A = 0.1893, C = 0.2283, G = 0.2600, and T = 0.3224; substitution rate matrix with G-T = 1.0000, A-C = 0.5967, A-G = 1.7246, A-T = 0.9218, C-G = 0.3420, C-T = 3.2104; proportion of invariable sites = 0.0000 and rates for variable sites assumed to follow a gamma distribution with shape parameter = 0.2878. The numbers at the nodes of the branches indicate the ML bootstrap (left) and Bayesian posterior probability (right) values; only values ≥ 50% or 0.5 are shown.
  • [ Fig. 5. ]  Maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree based on 558 aligned nucleotides of the nuclear large subunit rDNA using the TIM + I + G model with Alexandrium tamarense, A. catenella, Ceratium fusus, and C. lineatum as outgroup taxa. Alignment length includes gaps. The parameters were as follows: assumed nucleotide frequencies A = 0.2404, C = 0.1639, G = 0.2942, and T = 0.3014; substitution rate matrix with G-T = 1.0000, A-C = 1.0000, A-G = 2.2082, A-T = 0.7906, C-G = 0.7906, C-T = 6.5313; proportion of invariable sites = 0.1258 and rates for variable sites assumed to follow a gamma distribution with shape parameter = 0.7930. The numbers at the nodes of the branches indicate the ML bootstrap (left) and Bayesian posterior probability (right) values; only values ≥50% or 0.5 are shown.
    Maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree based on 558 aligned nucleotides of the nuclear large subunit rDNA using the TIM + I + G model with Alexandrium tamarense, A. catenella, Ceratium fusus, and C. lineatum as outgroup taxa. Alignment length includes gaps. The parameters were as follows: assumed nucleotide frequencies A = 0.2404, C = 0.1639, G = 0.2942, and T = 0.3014; substitution rate matrix with G-T = 1.0000, A-C = 1.0000, A-G = 2.2082, A-T = 0.7906, C-G = 0.7906, C-T = 6.5313; proportion of invariable sites = 0.1258 and rates for variable sites assumed to follow a gamma distribution with shape parameter = 0.7930. The numbers at the nodes of the branches indicate the ML bootstrap (left) and Bayesian posterior probability (right) values; only values ≥50% or 0.5 are shown.
  • [ FIG. 6. ]  Pigment composition of the isolate from Korea and Pelagodinium bei derived by high performance liquid chromatography. (A) Chromatogram of the isolate from Korea. (B) Chromatogram of the type culture of P. bei (RCC #1491). 1, Chlorophyll c2; 2, Peridinin; 3, Diadinoxanthin; 4, Diatoxanthin; 5, Zeaxanthin; 6, Alloxanthin; 7, Chlorophyll a; 8, β-carotene.
    Pigment composition of the isolate from Korea and Pelagodinium bei derived by high performance liquid chromatography. (A) Chromatogram of the isolate from Korea. (B) Chromatogram of the type culture of P. bei (RCC #1491). 1, Chlorophyll c2; 2, Peridinin; 3, Diadinoxanthin; 4, Diatoxanthin; 5, Zeaxanthin; 6, Alloxanthin; 7, Chlorophyll a; 8, β-carotene.
  • [ Table 1. ]  Comparison between the isolate from Korea and Pelagodinium bei from the Caribbean Sea
    Comparison between the isolate from Korea and Pelagodinium bei from the Caribbean Sea
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