The family Chalinidae Gray, 1867 which is the largest family of the order Haplosclerida (De Weerdt, 1986) has worldwide distribution and is taxonomically most complicated, because of their scarcity, simplicity and sometimes high variability of taxonomic characters (De Weerdt, 2000). This family consists of four genera, including
According to the definition of De Weedrt (2000) for the genus
Sponges were collected by SCUBA diving from Gageodo Island and Ulleungdo Island, Korea, from 2007 to 2009. Specimens were fixed in 95% or 99.9% ethanol. Spicules were observed under a light microscope (Axioskop II; Carl
[Fig. 1.] Haliclona (Haliclona) tonggumiensis n. sp. A, Entire animal; B, Spicule (thick oxea [a], thin oxea [b], bent of oxea at the middle [c]); C, D, Surface structure; E, Chaonosomal skeleton; F, Choanosomal skeleton (uni-paucispicular primary lines [a], regularly connected by unispicular secondary lines [b]). Scale bars: A=1 cm, B, D=50 μm, C=200 μm, E=500 μm, F=100 μm.
Zeiss, Jena, Germany). Identification was made on the basis of external features of the sponges, including growth form, skeletal structure, and spicule size and form of spicules. For the observation of the choanosomal skeletal structure, thin free-hand sections were made with specimens hardened in alcohol using a surgical blade. Spicules were prepared by
[Fig. 2.] Haliclona (Reniera) sinyeoensis n. sp. A, Entire animal; B, Ectosomal skeleton; C, D, Choaonosomal skeleton; E, Spongin at the end of spicule; F, Spicule (thick oxea [a], thin oxea [b]). Scale bars: A=3 cm, B, C, F=100 μm, D=200 μm, E=20 μm.
dissolving a piece of sponge in sodium hypochlorite and were examined under a scanning electron microscope (HITACHI S-3500) (Rutzler, 1978; Hooper, 1996). Holotypes of two new species have been deposited in the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), Incheon, Korea. Paratypes have been deposited in the National Science Museum of Korea (NSMK) and the Natural History Museum of Hannam University (HUNHM), Daejeon, Korea. The classification used here follows the Systema Porifera (Hooper and Van Soest, 2002).
Phylum Porifera Grant, 1836
Class Demospongiae Sollas, 1885
Order Haplosclerina Topsent, 1928
Family Chalinidae Gray, 1867
Genus Haliclona Grant, 1863
1*Haliclona (Haliclona) tonggumiensis n. sp. (Fig. 1)
Material examined. Holotype, Korea: Gyeongsanbuk-do, Ulleung-gun, Seo-myeon, Namyang-ri, Tonggumi, 9 Sep 2009, SCUBA diving, 3 m depth, Kang DW, Rho HS, deposited in the NIBR (NIBRIV0000259987). Paratype are deposited in NSMK (NSMK-POR-0000004) and in HUNHM (por. 110).
Description. Growth form thinly encrusting, 0.1 cm thickness and 5 cm width, with small circular oscules. Oscules 0.1-0.2 cm in diameter, scattered on surface. Color pink in life gradually changing to ivory in alcohol. Texture soft, fragile and compressible. Surface smooth and even. Spongin moderate to abundant, yellowish and clearly visible. Skeletal structure on surface reticularly arranged by unispicular oxea under membrane with pores, and single oxea slightly hispid to outer surface. Skeleton in thin surface membrane absent. Choanosomal skeleton composed of ladder-like reticulation by uni-paucispicular primary lines and regularly connected by unispicular secondary lines. Spicules composed of two type of oxea and no microscleres. Thick oxea approximately 90-110×3.5-5 μm in size. Thin oxea approximately 60-70 ×1-1.5 μm in size. Fusiform thick oxeas, straight to slightly arched or bent at middle.
Etymology. This species is named after the type locality, Tonggumi, Ulleungdo Island, Korea.
2*Haliclona (Reniera) sinyeoensis n. sp. (Fig. 2)
Material examined. Holotype, Korea: Jeollanam-do, Sinan-gun, Heuksan-myeon, Gageodo-ri, Sinyeo, 19 Jul 2007, SCUBA 20 m depth, Kim HS, deposited in the NIBR (NIBRIV 0000259988). Paratype (por. 111), deposited in the HUNHM.
Description. Cushion-shaped, with several volcano- or chimney- shaped oscular elevations up to 1.5-4 cm high. Up to 7 cm width, 5.5 cm height and 0.6-1.5 cm thickness. Oscules 0.4-1.5 cm in diameter, opened at top of chimney. Color purple and pink in life gradually changing to ivory in alcohol. Texture soft compressible and fragile. Surface smooth, even. Ectosomal skeleton composed of unispicular and isotropic reticulation. Spongin appear at node of spicule. Choanosomal skeleton composed of very regular, ladder-like reticulation, and without clear distinction between primary and secondary lines. Spicules composed of oxeas of two kinds in size, without microscleres. Thick oxeas approximately 130-150×5-8 μm and thin oxeas approximately 90-115×2.5-4 μm in size.
Etymology. This species is named after the type locality, Sinyeo, Gageodo Island, Korea.
Korean name: 1*통구미보라해면 (신칭), 2*신여보라해면 (신칭)