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First Record of the Black Snoek Thyrsitoides marleyi (Pisces: Gempylidae) from Korea
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A single specimen of Thyrsitoides marleyi (818 mm in standard length), belonging to the family Gempylidae, was collected for the first time in Korea from the coastal waters off Busan, Korea using longline with hooks on 27 January 2012. This species is characterized by the following morphological traits: palate with three fangs, dark dorsal spine membrane, ending part of soft dorsal and anal fin rays finlet-like, and tip of the jaw with a cartilaginous process. We suggest a new Korean name “Gal-chi-ggo-chi” for T. marleyi.

First record , Thyrsitoides marleyi , Gempylidae , Korea , Jeju Island
  • Introduction

    The family Gempylidae, which is comprised of 16 genera with about 24 species, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical seas worldwide (Nelson, 2006). This family is characterized by having an oblong and compressed body, a protruding lower jaw, and isolated finlets present behind the dorsal and anal fins (Nelson, 2006). Within the family, the genus Thyrsitoides includes only one species worldwide and is morphologically characterized by XVII to XIX dorsal fin spines, dermal processes on the jaws, and a lower lateral line running along the middle of the body (Nakamura and Parin, 1993).

    In Korea, one species, Rexea prometheoides in the family Gempylidae has been reported to date (Kim et al., 2005). A single specimen of Thyrsitoides marleyi, belonging to the family Gemphlidae, was collected by hook for commercial longline fisheries in the coastal waters off Busan, Korea, on 27 January 2012.

    Materials and Methods

    The specimen examined was preserved in 10% formalin for 1 month and then preserved in 80% ethanol. The morphological characters of T. marleyi are herein described in detail based on a single specimen. Counts and measurements were followed the methods of Hubbs and Lagler (2004). The examined specimen was deposited at the Fisheries Resource Management Division, National Fisheries Sciences and Development Institute (NFRDI), Korea.

    Results and Discussion

    Thyrsitoides Fowler, 1929

    (New Korean genus name: Gal-chi-ggo-chi-sok)

    Thyrsitoides Fowler, 1929: 381 (type species: Thyrsitoides marleyi Fowler, 1929).

    Thyrsitoides marleyi Fowler, 1929 (Table 1, Fig. 1)

    (New Korean name: Gal-chi-ggo-chi)

    Thyrsitoides marleyi: 1929: 256 (type locality: KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa); Randall and Lim 2000: 643 (South China Sea); Nakabo in Nakobo 2002: 600 (Japan).

      >  Material examined

    NFRDI 20120127, 818.0 mm standard length (SL), longline, Dadaepo, Busan, Korea. 27 January 2012.

      >  Description

    Counts and measurements of the present specimen are shown in Table 1.

    Body much elongated and compressed; body covered with tiny cycloid scales; dorsal profile of head sloping gently; head large; mouth and eyes large; lower jaw sharply pointed, projecting in front of upper jaw and extending below to one-third of eye; tip of each jaw with a small cartilaginous process; three fangs (two fangs on right side and one fang on left side) of upper jaw; both jaws with a single series of canine-like, compressed teeth; no tooth on vomer; dorsal fin starts above angle of opercle, second dorsal spine slightly longer than first one; dorsal fin rays and anal fin rays opposite each; posterior dorsal and anal soft rays finlet-like connected to each other by the membrane; pelvic fin base located behind pectoral base. Lateral line starts above angle of opercle and bifurcates slightly behind forth dorsal spine (Fig. 2); upper line runs along dorsal profile of body to the point of thirteenth dorsal spine, lower line forth dorsal spine along middle of body to caudal base; caudal fin deeply forked; a keel-like process at base of upper and lower caudal fin lobes.

    Color when fresh: Body entirely dark silver; first dorsal fin membranes black; pectoral, anal and caudal fins dark, but pelvic fin pale grayish.

    Color in alcohol: Body dark brown above, pale silvery white below; first dorsal fin membranes black; all fins darkened.

      >  Distribution

    Widely known from Indo-West Pacific Ocean: Korea (present study), Japan, Kyusyu-Palau Ridge, Taiwan, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, Malacca Straits, Andaman Sea, western Australia, around Madagascar, La Reunion, east coast of South Africa and Red Sea (Nakamura and Parin, 1993).

      >  Remarks

    The present specimen was characterized by a much elongated and compressed body, branched lateral line, dark first dorsal spine membranes, and lower jaw projecting in front of upper jaw). In addition, the morphological characteristics of the present specimen agreed well with those in previous reports of Thyrsitoides marleyi (Nakabo, 2002) (Table 1).

    Thyrsitoides marleyi is morphologically similar to Rexea prometheoides (Bleeker, 1843) and inhabits the coastal waters of Jeju Island, Korea. The former is easily distinguished from the latter in having the pelvic fin with I spine, 5 soft rays (vs. I or no spines, and no rays for R. prometheoides), a slender body (vs. not slender), and the upper lateral line not reaching the posterior end of the first dorsal fin base (vs. extending beyond) (Nakabo, 2002). We suggest a new Korean name “Gal-chiggo- chi” for T. marleyi.

  • 1. Fowler HW 1929 New and little-known fishes from the Natal coast. [Ann Natal Mus] Vol.6 P.245-258 google
  • 2. Gon O 1987 New records of three fish species from Hawaii. [Jpn J Ichthyol] Vol.34 P.100-104 google
  • 3. Hubbs CL, Lagler KF 2004 Fishes of the Great Lakes Region. Revised ed. google
  • 4. Kim IS, Choi Y, Lee CL, Lee YJ, Kim BJ, Kim JH 2005 Illustrated Book of Korean Fishes. P.1-615 google
  • 5. Machidae Y, Okamura O, Machida Y, Yamakawa T, Matsuura K, Yatou T 1985 In: Fishes of the Okinawa trough and the Adjacent Waters Ⅱ. google
  • 6. Nakabo T 2002 331. Gempylidae. In: Fishes of Japan with Pictorial Keys to the Species. English ed. Nakabo T, ed. P.1338-1341 google
  • 7. Nakamura I 1980 New record of a rare Gempylid, Thyrsitoides marleyi, from the sea of Japan. [Japanese J Ichthyol] Vol.26 P.357-360 google
  • 8. Nakamura I, Parin NV 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 15. Snake Mackerels and Cutlassfishes of the World (Families Gempylidae and Trichiuridae). An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of the Snake Mackerels, Snoeks, Escolars, Gemfishes, Sackfishes, Domine, Oilfish, Cutlassfishes, Scabbardfishes, Hairtails, and Frostfishes Known to Date. [FAO Fish Synop] Vol.125 P.1-136 google
  • 9. Nelson JS 2006 Fishes of the world. google
  • 10. Randall JE, Lim KKP 2000 A checklist of the fishes of the South China Sea. [Raffles Bull Zool Suppl] Vol.8 P.569-667 google
이미지 / 테이블
  • [ Fig. 1. ]  Thyrsitoides marleyis Fowler, 1926, NFRDI 20120127, 818.0 mm standard length, longline, Dadaepo, Busan, Korea.
    Thyrsitoides marleyis Fowler, 1926, NFRDI 20120127, 818.0 mm standard length, longline, Dadaepo, Busan, Korea.
  • [ Fig. 2. ]  Branched lateral line.
    Branched lateral line.
  • [ Table 1. ]  Comparison of counts and measurements of Thyrsitoides marleyi
    Comparison of counts and measurements of Thyrsitoides marleyi
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