For investigation of the Korean ciliate fauna, two oxytrichid ciliates,
To date, more than 440 species in 45 oxytrichid genera have been described worldwide; however, approximately 170 species are considered valid (Berger, 1999; Lynn, 2008). Two species of oxytrichid ciliates, representing two genera,
In Korea, 22 species of 13 oxytrichid genera from freshwater, soil, and marine habitats have been described so far (Shin and Kim, 1988, 1993, 1994, 1996; Kwon and Shin, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2010; Jo et al., 2005; Gong and Choi, 2007; Gong et al., 2007). For elucidation of Korean ciliate fauna, two oxytrichid ciliates,
Shape and body size, food vacuoles, cytoplasm, oral apparatus, and cortical granules were observed from live specimens. Silver impregnation was performed as described by Wilbert (1975) and Shin and Kim (1993). Counts and measurements on silver impregnated specimens were conducted at a magnification of ×1,000. Live specimens were drawn using Adobe Illustrator® (Adobe, San Jose, CA, USA) based on images captured with a camera. The classification scheme used was in accordance with those of Corliss (1979) and Lynn (2008).
Subclass Stichotrichia Small and Lynn, 1985
Order Sporadotrichida Faurei-Fremiet, 1961
Family Oxytrichidae Ehrenberg, 1838
Genus Histriculus Corliss, 1960
Paramecium histrio Muller, 1773: 55.
Kerona histrio Muller, 1786: 235.
Histrio erethisticus: Kahl, 1932: 615.
Histrio histrio: Kahl, 1932: 615; Wang and Nie, 1933: 62.
Histriculus histrio: Berger and Foissner, 1997: 137; Berger, 1999: 647.
Body size 150-240×60-100㎛, length : width ratio 2.3 : 1 on average in stained specimens. Body rather flexible, almost ellipsoidal in shape; anterior end rounded and with distinct anterior collar; posterior end narrowly rounded, posterior part rather thin and very translucent (Fig.2 A); right margin straight; left margin slightly convex. Contractile vacuole located near left margin of cell at level of buccal vertex, without collecting canal. Cytoplasm usually colorless with many and huge colored food vacuoles throughout body except for anterior and posterior parts (Figs. 1A, 2A), cell appeared dark at low magnification. Cortical granules absent. Movement usually by creeping on substratum; when swimming, moved backwards and forwards
[Fig. 1.] Histriculus histrio from live (A) and impregnated specimens (B C). A Ventral view of a typical individual; B Ventral view of general infraciliature; C Dorsal kineties and nuclei. Scale bar=50 ㎛.
rapidly thus appeared to be trembling.
Adoral zone of membranelles covering about 50% of body length composed of 40-58 adoral membranelles. Buccal area flat. Undulating membranes in typical
Usually three frontal cirri distinctly enlarged, sometimes 4 in number (Fig.2F). Buccal cirrus located at the anterior end of paroral. Four frontoventral cirri arranged in a typical V-shape. Postoral ventral cirri 3 in number. Transverse cirri very prominent in stained specimens, about 40 ㎛ long and almost 5 in number, with some variation in number (Fig.2 G, H); rightmost transverse cirrus separated from the other 4 transverse cirri which arranged in an obliquely oriented row. One right marginal row with 33-51 cirri; 1 left marginal row with 23-35 cirri; marginal rows almost confluent at posterior end (Fig.2 D). Six dorsal kineties present with dorsal bristles 5-6 ㎛ in length (Figs.1C, 2E). Caudal cirri absent (Figs. 1C, 2B).
Two ellipsoidal macronuclear nodules, 30-50×10-20 ㎛ in impregnated specimens, located along median line of cell. Two ellipsoidal micronuclei, 8-20 ㎛×10 ㎛ in impregnated specimens, each located near macronuclear nodule (Figs. 1C, 2C, E).
Europe (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, England, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Russia, Slovakia, Spain), North America (U.S.A) and Asia (China, present study in Korea).
[Fig. 2.] Histriculus histrio from life (A-C) and impregnated specimens (D-H). A Cytoplasm with food vacuoles; B D Ventral view of a typical individual. Arrowhead denotes large marginal cirri at the anterior part of the left marginal cirral row; C Macronuclear and micronuclei (arrowheads); E Dorsal kineties (arrowheads); F Variation of frontal cirri; G H Variation of transverse cirri. Scale bars=50 ㎛.
[Fig. 3.] Sterkiella thompsoni from live (A) and impregnated specimens (B C). A Ventral view of a typical individual; B Ventral view of general infraciliature; C Dorsal kineties and nuclear apparatus. Scale bar=70 ㎛.
1*Sterkiella thompsoni Foissner, 1996 (Table 1,Figs. 3, 4)
Opisthotricha sp. Sudzuki, 1964: 5.
Oxytricha sp. Thompson, 1972: 283.
Sterkiella thompsoniFoissner, 1996: 112; Berger, 1999:679.
Body size in live specimens 110-150×40-50 ㎛, usually about 140×50 ㎛, length : width ratio 3 : 1 on average. Dorso-ventrally flattened. Body margins usually in parallel, anterior end broadly rounded, posterior end narrowly rounded (Figs. 3A, 4A, B, C). Pellicle rather rigid. Contractile vacuoles slightly above mid-body at left margin of cell with collecting canals. Cytoplasm colorless; containing many small crystals on dorsal side and colorless fat globules 2-5 ㎛. Food vacuoles up to 10 ㎛ in diameter, typically containing green algae, diatoms and flagellates (Fig.4 C). Locomotion by swimming or by crawling over surfaces.
Adoral zone of membranelles about 33% of body length composed of 30-35 membranelles. Buccal area flat. Undulating membranes in
Three enlarged frontal cirri. Buccal cirrus near anterior end of undulating membrane. Four frontoventral cirri on right of cell median, in typical V-shape. Three postoral ventral cirri, longitudinally arranged. Two pre-transverse cirri. Five or six enlarged transverse cirri in J-shaped row near posterior end of cell. One right marginal cirral row with 21-37 marginal cirri, 1 left marginal row with 20-25 cirri; marginal rows distinctly separated posteriorly (Figs. 3B, 4D). Invariably 4 dorsal kineties, dorsal bristles 3-5 ㎛ long (Figs. 3C, 4F). Two caudal cirri located on dorsal surface (Figs. 3C, 4D).
Three ellipsoidal macronuclear nodules located slightly left of median, anterior nodule 15-30×12-30 ㎛ in impregnated specimens. One to three spherical micronuclei, 1.5-2.0 ㎛ in diameter and located near macronuclear nodules (Figs. 3C, 4E).
The Korean population of
[Fig. 4.] Photomicrographs of Sterkiella thompsoni from live (A-C) and impregnated specimens (D-F). A Ventral view of a typical individual using differential interference contrast microscopy; B Somatic ciliature on the ventral side; C Cytoplasm with many food vacuoles; D Ventral views showing infraciliature and caudal cirri (arrowheads); E Ventral views showing the infraciliature and nuclear apparatus. Arrowheads denote micronuclei; F Dorsal kineties (arrowhead). Scale bars=100 ㎛.
sner, 1996; Berger, 1999). In general, possession of 3 macronuclear nodules is a rare characteristic in hypotrich ciliates and can be used for separation of
Korean name: 1*조직하모충(신칭) Korean name: 1*유사조직하모충속(신칭) Korean name: 1*삼핵유사조직하모충(신칭)