Modelling and Simulation Resolution of Ground-Penetrating Radar Antennas

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  • ABSTRACT

    The problem of resolution in antenna ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is very important for the investigation and detection of buried targets. We should solve this problem with software or a numeric method. The purposes of this paper are the modelling and simulation resolution of antenna radar GPR using three antennas, arrays (as in the software REFLEXW), the antenna dipole (as in GprMax2D), and a bow-tie antenna (as in the experimental results). The numeric code has been developed for study resolution antennas by scattered electric fields in mode B-scan. Three frequency antennas (500, 800, and 1,000 MHz) have been used in this work. The simulation results were compared with experimental results obtained by Rial and colleagues under the same conditions.


  • KEYWORD

    Antenna , FDTD , GPR , Modelling , Simulation , Resolution

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  • [Table 1.] Physical properties of the materials
    Physical properties of the materials
  • [Table 2.] Geometries and dimensions of 500, 800 and 1,000 MHz GPR antennas
    Geometries and dimensions of 500, 800 and 1,000 MHz GPR antennas
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  • [Fig. 1.] Vertical and horizontal resolution diagram.
    Vertical and horizontal resolution diagram.
  • [Table 3.] Effective pulse duration and central frequency for the 1,000, 800, and 500 MHz antennas
    Effective pulse duration and central frequency for the 1,000, 800, and 500 MHz antennas
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  • [Fig. 2.] Relative field and power patterns of a short dipole antenna.
    Relative field and power patterns of a short dipole antenna.
  • [Fig. 3.] Radargram simulation of vertical resolution at a 63-cm depth with a 1,000-MHz antenna. (a) Wooden bars simulation, 15 cm spacing; (b) metal bars simulation, 15 cm spacing; (c) wooden bars experiments, 20 cm spacing [6]; (d) metal bars experiments, 20 cm spacing [6]; (e) wooden bars buried in soil; and (f) metal bars buried in soil.
    Radargram simulation of vertical resolution at a 63-cm depth with a 1,000-MHz antenna. (a) Wooden bars simulation, 15 cm spacing; (b) metal bars simulation, 15 cm spacing; (c) wooden bars experiments, 20 cm spacing [6]; (d) metal bars experiments, 20 cm spacing [6]; (e) wooden bars buried in soil; and (f) metal bars buried in soil.
  • [Fig. 4.] Radargram simulation of vertical resolution at a 74-cm depth and a 800-MHz antenna. (a) Wooden bars simulation, 20 cm spacing; (b) metal bars simulation, 20 cm spacing; (c) wooden bars experiment, 20 cm spacing [6]; (d) metal bars experiment, 20 cm spacing [6]; (e) wooden bars buried in soil; and (f) metal bars buried in soil.
    Radargram simulation of vertical resolution at a 74-cm depth and a 800-MHz antenna. (a) Wooden bars simulation, 20 cm spacing; (b) metal bars simulation, 20 cm spacing; (c) wooden bars experiment, 20 cm spacing [6]; (d) metal bars experiment, 20 cm spacing [6]; (e) wooden bars buried in soil; and (f) metal bars buried in soil.
  • [Table 4.] Results of the vertical resolution (ΔV ) for the 1,000, 500, and 800 MHz antennas
    Results of the vertical resolution (ΔV ) for the 1,000, 500, and 800 MHz antennas
  • [Fig. 5.] Radargrams of the 500 MHz antenna with bars at 85 cm depth. (a) Wooden bars gap at 30 cm; (b) metal bars gap at 33 cm; (c) wooden bars gap at 35 cm. (d) Metal bars gap at 40 cm; (e) wooden bars buried in soil; and (f) metal bars buried in soil.
    Radargrams of the 500 MHz antenna with bars at 85 cm depth. (a) Wooden bars gap at 30 cm; (b) metal bars gap at 33 cm; (c) wooden bars gap at 35 cm. (d) Metal bars gap at 40 cm; (e) wooden bars buried in soil; and (f) metal bars buried in soil.
  • [Fig. 6.] Radargram simulation of detection for iron bar, 0.5 m depth at 800 MHz. (a) Schematic drawing of the targets buried; (b) radargram by GprMax2D; and (c) scattered electric fields from two targets in mode B-scan.
    Radargram simulation of detection for iron bar, 0.5 m depth at 800 MHz. (a) Schematic drawing of the targets buried; (b) radargram by GprMax2D; and (c) scattered electric fields from two targets in mode B-scan.
  • [Fig. 7.] Radargram simulations of vertical resolution, spacing 10 cm and 0.5 m depth at 800 MHz. (a) Schematic drawing of the targets buried; (b) radargram by GprMax2D; and (c) scattered electric fields from two targets in mode B-scan.
    Radargram simulations of vertical resolution, spacing 10 cm and 0.5 m depth at 800 MHz. (a) Schematic drawing of the targets buried; (b) radargram by GprMax2D; and (c) scattered electric fields from two targets in mode B-scan.
  • [Fig. 8.] Radargram simulation of vertical resolution, with a 16-cm spacing and a 0.5-m depth at 800 MHz. (a) Schematic drawing of the targets buried; (b) radargram by GprMax2D; and (c) scattered electric fields from two targets in mode B-scan.
    Radargram simulation of vertical resolution, with a 16-cm spacing and a 0.5-m depth at 800 MHz. (a) Schematic drawing of the targets buried; (b) radargram by GprMax2D; and (c) scattered electric fields from two targets in mode B-scan.
  • [Fig. 9.] Radargram simulation of vertical resolution, spacing 32 cm and 0.5 m depth at 800 MHz. (a) Schematic drawing of the targets buried; (b) radargram by GprMax2D; and (c) scattered electric fields from two targets in mode B-scan.
    Radargram simulation of vertical resolution, spacing 32 cm and 0.5 m depth at 800 MHz. (a) Schematic drawing of the targets buried; (b) radargram by GprMax2D; and (c) scattered electric fields from two targets in mode B-scan.
  • [Table 5.] Results of horizontal resolution (ΔH) for the 1,000, 800, and 500 MHz antennas
    Results of horizontal resolution (ΔH) for the 1,000, 800, and 500 MHz antennas
  • [Fig. 10.] Radargrams simulation of horizontal resolution at a 91 cm depth with a 1,000-MHz antenna. (a) Wooden bars spacing 20 cm; (c) wooden bars spacing 32 cm; (e) wooden bars spacing 52 cm; (g) wooden bars experiments spacing 60 cm [6]; (b) metal bars spacing 20 cm; (d) metal bars spacing 32 cm; (f) metal bars spacing 52 cm; (i) metal bars experiments spacing 60 cm [6]; (m) wooden bars buried in soil; and (n) metal bars buried in soil.
    Radargrams simulation of horizontal resolution at a 91 cm depth with a 1,000-MHz antenna. (a) Wooden bars spacing 20 cm; (c) wooden bars spacing 32 cm; (e) wooden bars spacing 52 cm; (g) wooden bars experiments spacing 60 cm [6]; (b) metal bars spacing 20 cm; (d) metal bars spacing 32 cm; (f) metal bars spacing 52 cm; (i) metal bars experiments spacing 60 cm [6]; (m) wooden bars buried in soil; and (n) metal bars buried in soil.
  • [Fig. 11.] Radargrams simulation of horizontal resolution at a 91 cm depth and with a-800 MHz antenna. (a) Wooden bars spaced at 37.5 cm; (c) wooden bars spaced at 60 cm; (e) wooden bars experiments spaced at 60 cm [6]; (b) metal bars spaced at 37.5 cm; (d) metal bars spaced at 60 cm; (f) metal bars experiments spaced at 60 cm [6].
    Radargrams simulation of horizontal resolution at a 91 cm depth and with a-800 MHz antenna. (a) Wooden bars spaced at 37.5 cm; (c) wooden bars spaced at 60 cm; (e) wooden bars experiments spaced at 60 cm [6]; (b) metal bars spaced at 37.5 cm; (d) metal bars spaced at 60 cm; (f) metal bars experiments spaced at 60 cm [6].
  • [Fig. 12.] Radargrams of the 500 MHz antenna with bars at a depth of 143 cm. (a) Wooden bars with a gap of 98 cm; (b) metal bars with a gap of 97 cm; (c) experiment of wooden bars [6]; (d) experiment of metal bars [6]; (e) wooden bars buried in soil; and (f) metal bars buried in soil.
    Radargrams of the 500 MHz antenna with bars at a depth of 143 cm. (a) Wooden bars with a gap of 98 cm; (b) metal bars with a gap of 97 cm; (c) experiment of wooden bars [6]; (d) experiment of metal bars [6]; (e) wooden bars buried in soil; and (f) metal bars buried in soil.
  • [Fig. 13.] Radargram simulation of horizontal resolution, with a spacing of 10 cm and a 0.5-m depth at 800 MHz. (a) Schematic drawing of the targets buried; (b) radargram by GprMax2D; and (c) scattered electric fields from two targets in mode B-scan.
    Radargram simulation of horizontal resolution, with a spacing of 10 cm and a 0.5-m depth at 800 MHz. (a) Schematic drawing of the targets buried; (b) radargram by GprMax2D; and (c) scattered electric fields from two targets in mode B-scan.
  • [Fig. 14.] Radargram simulations of horizontal resolution, with a spacing of 16 cm and a 0.5-m depth at 800 MHz. (a) Schematic drawing of the targets buried; (b) radargram by GprMax2D; and (c) time domain.
    Radargram simulations of horizontal resolution, with a spacing of 16 cm and a 0.5-m depth at 800 MHz. (a) Schematic drawing of the targets buried; (b) radargram by GprMax2D; and (c) time domain.
  • [Fig. 15.] Radargrams simulation of horizontal resolution, with a 20-cm spacing and a 0.5-m depth at 800 MHz. (a) Schematic drawing of the targets buried; (b) radargram by GprMax2D; and (c) scattered electric fields from two targets in mode B-scan.
    Radargrams simulation of horizontal resolution, with a 20-cm spacing and a 0.5-m depth at 800 MHz. (a) Schematic drawing of the targets buried; (b) radargram by GprMax2D; and (c) scattered electric fields from two targets in mode B-scan.
  • [Fig. 16.] Radargram simulations of horizontal resolution, with a 48-cm spacing and a 0.5-m depth at 800 MHz. (a) Schematic drawing of the targets buried; (b) radargram by GprMax2D; and (c) scattered electric fields from two targets in mode B-scan.
    Radargram simulations of horizontal resolution, with a 48-cm spacing and a 0.5-m depth at 800 MHz. (a) Schematic drawing of the targets buried; (b) radargram by GprMax2D; and (c) scattered electric fields from two targets in mode B-scan.