Research on Development Policies of Zhoushan New Area in China
- Author: Wang Ying, Kim Ducksoo, Kang Taewon
- Publish: Korean Comparative Government Review Volume 18, Issue3, p35~60, Dec 2014
Since the 1978, China has begun to develop a large-scale new areas in order to promote national economy. Zhejiang Zhoushan Archipelago New Area, which has obvious advantages in location, resources and industry, etc., is the only city-transformed district in China, a forerunner of Zhejiang Province and an important growth pole of Yangtze River delta in marine economy development. Setting up of this district is an important step of China in adopting the marine power strategy. Marine powers refer to the nations that have strong comprehensive strength in marine development, utilization, protection and management. This paper explores the innovative mode of setting up Zhoushan Archipelago New Area to promote the development of marine economy, speed up the openness of Zhoushan Archipelago New Area, construct the international logistics hubs, establish marine-related industry system, establish free trade zone, and construct marine science and technology base, and build a comprehensive marine development and experiment zone. This papre provides the policy implications to the Korean government. Korean government should have a good understanding of China’s strategy for marine economic zone.
Marine Economy , Regional Economy , Zhoushan New Area , Logistics Hub , Free Trade Zone
Since the reform and opening-up in 1978, the State Department has approved the construction of large scale new urban areas, known as nation-level new area, in the coastal provinces so as to promote national economy in China. The new area will take on a significantly strategic mission in China's overall development. The development goal and positioning of nation-level new area is planned and reviewed by the State Department. With the development and construction raised to the level of national strategy, the State Department has also decided on relevant preferential policies and authorities. More open and preferential special policies will be carried out in the new area so as to encourage the reform in various systems as well as the exploration on the innovation
The nation-level new area will play an important role in implementing the strategy of opening-up and further development. The core of nation-level new area strategy lies in the mechanism ranging from nation-level area, central city, city cluster to economic belt. The further development of those new areas, such as Pudong New Area, Binhai New Area and Lounging New Area, and the earlier Shenzhen Special Economic Zone will act as the driving force for the four nation-level city clusters, namely Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region and Chengdu-Chongqing Area. Those nation-level city clusters will also transform China's national space from growth-pole development to growth-axis development, leading to a multilayer, widefield and all around development path of regional economy.
The nation-level new area will speed up gradually. From 1992 to 2010, there were only 3 nation-level new areas approved, namely Pudong New Area, Binhai New Area and Liangjiang New Area. However, during the period from 2011 to June of 2014, 8 nation-level new areas have been approved, one after another (as seen in table 1). It has meant that China has formed a growingly mature idea of adopting nation-level new area as a regional development strategy. In the future, the construction of nation-level new area will have an immediate effect on the overall opening up layout extending from coastal area, inland to border area, two vertical and three horizontal pattern of urbanization strategy as well as the realization of the-three-100-million urbanization goal.
This paper is concerned with the development of Zhoushan Islands Marine Economic Zone, which is a coastal economic area in China.As discussed in the paper, Zhoushan Islands should speed up its opening-up and develop into an international logistics island. The experimental area of overall marine development will be also established while further efforts should be made to explore the construction of Zhoushan Islands New Area. In order to push forward the development of marine economy, this paper will innovate the mode of developing the island. By taking the model adopted by China to promote marine economy, this paper will also provide some reference for South Korea’s government to develop special economic zone.
Zhoushan archipelago, located on the west midland of the Pacific Ocean and the center of East Asia Pacific economic belt, the junction of longitudinal and horizontal development of coastal area of China, is the main sea portal of the Yangtze river basin to world. Around 700 sea miles away from Busan Korea, Osaka Japan, Manila Philippines, and Hong Kong, Tianjin, Dalian, Zhuhai, Haikou and other large and medium-sized cities of China, it is nearly an equidistant sea contacting network. In his book "The International Development of China", Sun Yat-sen described his dream of constructing the "The Great Eastern Port" in this place.
Zhoushan Archipelago New Area (hereinafter referred to as Zhoushan New Area), in the junction of north-south shipping channel and golden waterway of Yangtze River, is a key hub of river and ocean combined transportation, the forefront of China in the Pacific Rim economic circle, also a strategic portal of China in opening up to the world. It enjoys rich deepwater coastline resources and extremely advantageous conditions in port construction, e.g. 280km deepwater coastline suitable for port construction, as well as shelter and anchorage conditions, and has a number of international waterways. 317 production berths have been completed in Zhoushan port domain of Ningbo-Zhoushan port, and an actual cargo throughput of 261 million tons has been realized in 2011. Relying on the superior condition of port transportation, Asia's largest transferring and reserving base for iron ore, China's largest transferring and reserving base for commercial oil and important transferring and reserving base for chemicals, grain and oil, the national strategic oil reserve base, and the largest coal transferring and reserving base in Eastern China have been built. In addition, it enjoys rich marine biological resources, profound Buddhist culture and marine culture, as well as unique and abundant tourism resources, and is a key area for coastal and marine tourism and a pilot city for comprehensive reform of the national tourism.
In June 2011, Zhoushan New Area was approved by the State Council and encouraged to have the reform deepened. According to the requirements, to fully implement "the Outline of the Twelfth Five-Year Plan of the PRC for National Economic and Social Development", "Regional Planning of the Yangtze River Delta", "Planning for Marine Economy Development of Demonstration Plot of Zhejiang", administrative jurisdiction area of Zhoushan City was covered, including 1390 islands and their adjacent waters, land area of 1440 sq.km. and sea area of 2.08sq.km., the planning is valid between 2012 and 2020.
Zhoushan New Area has a good foundation of development and outstanding strategic position, thus speeding up the development and reform, making innovation and practice and striving to build a bridgehead of the Pacific Rim economic circle are of great significance for further implementation of overall strategy for China's regional development and Marine power construction. This paper discusses the process and basic principles of formulation as well as development goals, prospects and policies for Zhoushan New Area.
Zhoushan New Area is another area of the state level established by the CPC central committee and the state council after Shanghai Pudong New Area, Tianjin Binhai New Area and Chongqing Liangjiang New Area, also China's first marine economy-themed area of the national strategic level.
In the reply on establishment of Zhoushan New Area, the State Council clearly instructs a "3+5" strategic positioning and development goals for the new area: to become the forerunner in marine economy development of Zhejiang, experimental zone of comprehensive marine development in China and important growth pole of Yangtze River Delta in regional economic development; gradually become thestorage, transfer, processing and trading center for bulk commodity in China, important marine portal in the eastern region, demonstration area of comprehensive sea and island protection and development, important modern marine industry base, and forerunner in land-sea overall development.
A major move of exploring the marine economy development: in "the Outline of the Twelfth Five-Year Plan of the PRC for National Economic and Social Development", a "hundred-word policy" on marine economy development was "construct a marine power by developing the marine economy" and China reached an unprecedented height on the cognition of marine development. Zhoushan archipelago has exceptionally rich marine resources, characterized marine economy, and marine economic value added that takes 2/3 of GDP, forming an open economy system supported by harbor industry, port logistics, marine tourism, marine biological medicine and marine fishery, etc. Establishment of the first marine economy based new area of the national strategic level and taking the initiative to explore the ways for marine economy development conform to the national strategic needs.
The requirement of times on integrating into the open economy system of the world: it conforms to the requirements of constructing the open economy system. Relying on unique conditions of Zhoushan and experience of Singapore, Hong Kong and other countries and regions, the free trade zone that is better connected with the international economy makes Zhejiang Zhoushan New Area a springboard that helps China further integrate into the world economy. It will be constructed into a bridgehead of China to the Pacific rim economic circle, become a booster in the process of economic globalization, and is conducive to creating a more open China. Especially, by giving full play to its unique resources of deep water port and constructing the Great Ring Channel of Hangzhou Bay and other major infrastructure, it is aimed to realize seamless docking in land and water transportation of bulk commodities, and build an international logistics hub, which can greatly improve the international exchange ability of Chinese economy; by making full use of natural resources and labor resources abroad and expanding imports of resource-oriented products and technologies, as well as exports of knowledge-intensive products,
An optimal decision for constructing the national key energy support base: By constructing strategic reserve base, resources intensive processing base, market and resources trading market and transfer base of bulk commodities such as oil, coal, iron ore, grain and oil, and building an international comprehensive trading, clearing and pricing center of bulk commodities in the sparsely populated area, excessive imports of important chemical raw materials can be reduced, international logistics level and strategic reserve capacity of China's oil, coal, ore and other strategic materials can be improved greatly, which ensures safety of the national important energy resources.
Follow the rules and seek scientific development: Improve the ability of grasping and applying the market economic law, the law of nature and social development, adjust measures to the island conditions, position by island and construct with ease based on characteristics of ocean development, scientific planning and strict ecological protection; take overall consideration about the development sequence, methods and intensity, correctly handle the relations between overall advancement and breakthroughs, development and utilization and ecological protection, opening and national defense, and constantly raise the level of scientific development.
Be the first mover and seek development by opening up: give full play to the advantage of Zhoushan New Area as the first mover, make breakthroughs and innovation in key areas, constantly improve systems and mechanisms conducive to the development of marine economy, speed up the building of opening platform and carrier, actively expand development space, and form a development and opening up pattern with distinct characteristics and outstanding advantages.
Transformation and upgrading based efficient development: give full play to the guiding role of technological innovation and achievement transformation, continuously improve the resource utilization efficiency, promote transformation and upgrading of the traditional marine industries, accelerate cultivation of marine industry, promote development of marine economic structure optimization and change of development pattern, and comprehensively improve the efficiency and benefits of marine development.
Sea-land coordination for interactive development: efficiently integrate the resources of land and sea, widely contact with the surrounding areas, build sea-land integrated network of transportation, energy supply and protection of water resources, information communication, disaster prevention and mitigation, and make efforts to achieve interactive development of land and sea, interactive construction of infrastructure, interactive configuration of resource factors and interactive protection of ecological environment.
Ecology the first for harmonious development: in the process of promoting the development of marine resources and marine industry, attach great importance to the marine ecological environment protection and marine ecological civilization construction, protect and make good use of precious natural and cultural heritage, and promote harmonious and sustainable development. Adhere to the people and livelihood-oriented principle, constantly improve the level of the people's material and cultural life, and ensure contentment of the people and stability and order of the society.
Zhoushan New Area takes the "3+5" strategy, viz. three strategic orientations: the forerunner in marine economy development of Zhejiang, important growth pole of Yangtze River Delta in regional economic development and experimental zone of comprehensive marine development in China; five development goals: storage, transfer, processing and trading center for bulk commodity in China, important marine portal in the eastern region, demonstration area of comprehensive sea and island protection and development, important modern marine industry base, and forerunner in land-sea overall development.
Forerunner in marine economic development of Zhejiang: as the key area of demonstration area construction of Zhejiang in marine economy development, it is required to make full use of the general advantages of the strategic location and marine resources configuration, reasonably develop and protect marine resources, build the first modern marine industry system, and make the area become the forefront of Zhejiang in expanding the development space, transforming the pattern of economic development, and developing the marine economy.
Experimental zone of China in comprehensive marine development: further adhere to the reform and opening up, be the first mover, develop innovative system and mechanism, optimize development environment, improve the opening level of marine economic, actively participate in global marine economic cooperation and competition, strengthen the cooperation with surrounding areas and northeast Asia, enhance the capacity of international resource allocation, and gather experience for transformation and upgrading of national marine economy.
Important growth pole of Yangtze River Delta in regional economic development: accelerate the process of regional integration, build a storage, transportation, transfer, processing and trading center for bulk commodities, highlight construction of port logistics service system, build an international logistics hub based on the Yangtze river delta but serves globally and the northeast Asia, provide omni-directional port logistics service for the Yangtze river delta region, continuously improve the scale and quality of marine economy and promote steady and rapid economic development of the Yangtze river delta
Firstly, Storage, transit, processing and trading center for bulk commodity in China: construct an international shipping service center, international storage, transfer, processing and trading center for bulk commodity, world-class international pivotal port and international logistics island, to ensure the security of national strategic material supply.
Secondly, Important marine portal in the eastern part of China: open wider to the world, construct Zhoushan port comprehensive bonded zone, explore to establish a free trade zone and free port city, become an important part of China that integrates international trade, finance, shipping, science and technology, talents and resources as a whole and a free trade island.
Thirdly, Important modern marine industry base in China: give the advantages in marine space and resources into full play, build a test base of marine development and transfer base of major marine scientific research achievements, develop a technologically advanced marine industrial cluster based on high-end products and scale effect, and build a marine industry island.
Fourthly, Demonstration area of China in comprehensive marine and island protection and development: innovate management systems and mechanisms for ocean and island development and protection, promote construction of marine tourism pilot region for comprehensive reforms and marine cultural archipelago, build a world-class leisure base, marine science and cultural center, ecological island city, and international leisure island.
Lastly, Forerunner in land-sea overall development in China: innovate integrated the land-sea overall management systems and mechanisms relying on the unique advantages of archipelago, and explore new ways for interactive development from infrastructure, industrial projects, resource factors, ecological environment and so on, create a mountain-sea city and marine garden city with unique charm in the world-class city agglomeration of the Yangtze river delta.
Adhere to the interactive and coordinated development of land and sea, lay emphasis on comparative advantage of different areas, optimize and form basic functional zones in the major waters and promote overall development of marine economy with "one core, two wings, three circles, nine areas and many islands".
1) Speed up construction of the core area: continue to enhance Ningbo-Zhoushan Port integration, actively promote interactive and coordinated development of Ningbo and Zhoushan, while promoting the radiating, driving and industrial leading role centered by Ningbo-Zhoushan port waters, islands and the surround cities; plan and construct a national key base for storage, transportation, processing and trade of bulk commodities, international container logistics, coastal tourism, new harbor industry, modern Marine fishery, marine new energy, marine science and education services, as well as oil and gas development rear base in the East China; strengthen coordinated management of deepwater coastline and other strategic resources, improve the infrastructure and eco-environmental protection network, and form the key competitive area of Chinese marine economy in international competition and strategic platform to guarantee the national economic security.
2) Promote development of the two wings : industrial belt surrounding Hangzhou Bay as the north wing and Wenzhou and Taizhou coastal industrial belt and the offshore area as the south wing. Based on coordinated development within and outside the area, strengthen the connection of the north wing with Shanghai international financial center and international shipping center, highlight the development of new port-surrounding advanced manufacturing industry and eco-environment protection in the Yangtze river estuary and adjacent waters,and build to be an important platform that drives marine economy development of the Yangtze river delta; strengthen the connection of the south wing with the West Coast Economic Zone, highlight the construction of coastal industrial agglomeration and coastal city construction, guide coordinated development of the marine tertiary industry, and build to be a new growth pole in marine economic development in China's south-east coastal areas. In the process of promoting the development of the two wings, reasonably determine the basic function of important waters in the area according to natural conditions and needs for marine economic development in the area.
3) Promote development of the three metropolitan circles: strengthen the marine basic research, technology research and development, achievement transformation and talent training in coastal metropolitan circles covering Hangzhou, Ningbo and Wenzhou, speed up the development of marine high-tech industry and modern service industry, promote shallow sea-to-deep sea extension, transformation from singleness to integration, and low-end to high-end, strengthen the service function of modern cities, improve the ability of radiating and driving the surrounding regions, build an important area with a high industrial level of marine economic vitality in China.
4) Concentrate on construction of nine big industrial agglomerations: based on integrating the present coastal and island industrial zones and adhering to combination of industry cultivation and new urban district construction, nine industrial agglomerations including Hangzhou, Ningbo, Jiaxing, Shaoxing, Zhoushan, Taizhou and Wenzhou are taken as the main construction projects; make it adapt to resources environment carrying capacity of industrial agglomeration, cultivate and expand emerging marine industry, ensure reasonable demand for construction land and sea, improve the industrial agglomeration scale and level, and make it become the main carrier of transformation of economic development mode and cultivation of new urban district.
5) Strengthen classified guidance, promote the exploitation, utilization and protection of Zhoushan main island, Daishan, Sijiao, Yuhuan, Dongtou, Meishan, Liuheng, Jintang, Qushan, Zhujiajian, Yangshan, Nantian, Toumen, Dachen, Daxiaomen, Nanmi, and other important islands. Make scientific planning and rational utilization of resources of islands and the surrounding waters according to natural conditions of each island, put forth efforts to build overall development island, port logistics island, harbor industrial island, marine tourism island, marine science and education island, modern fishery island, clean energy island, marine eco-island of distinctive characteristics, and be a pilot area of China in island development. Vigorously strengthen the role of Zhejiang marine economic development demonstration area in leading development of the province and surrounding provinces, seek common development by interdependence. Accelerate to construct the comprehensive transportation network that combines shipping, railways, highways and inland water transportation, improve the sea-water integrated logistics service system, simplified customs clearance, direct customs clearance service system, promote the inland extension of marine equipment manufacturing, clean energy equipment manufacturing and other advanced marine industries, and actively promote the interactive and coordinated development of the demonstration area with Huzhou, Jinhua, Quzhou, Lishui and other inland areas.
The overall development pattern of “one integration, one circle and five islands” should be constructed in accordance with the strategic positioning and development goals of Zhoushan New Area, relying on the unique geographical conditions, natural resources, ecological and environmental capacity, development basis and potentiality in a way of scientific and optimized spatial layout, with full play of comparative advantages, a clear functional positioning, good development focus, rational industry layout, apparent combined effect and a linkage coordinating the land and the sea.
Southern gardening city zone: Relying on Dinghai, Xincheng and Putuo Area, expand urban area, improve urban quality, promote urban renewal, make through the urban development corridors of southern coast, and jointly develop the southern islands. Accelerate the transfer of the secondary industry and the nurturing pace of the tertiary industry, and develop finance and commerce, maritime agency, medical services, research and development creativity, education and training, leisure and tourism and exhibition and festival celebrations-oriented modern service.
Key ecological zone at the middle part: strengthen the ecological protection of Zhoushan Island’s central part, and build a green corridor, to form the green land system in the form of finger with the core of mountains. Set greenbelt along the river combining water system, and build urban structural green land in the form of belts and sheets, and life green land in the form of nets and gardens. We should also observe scientific planning and rational development, have strict protection for the ecological landscape and idyllic islands, and earnestly safeguard the balance of natural ecosystems and ecological security of the island.
Northern marine emerging industry belt: focus on the development of port equipment manufacturing, marine biology, marine exploration equipment, high-end marine electronics, deep processing of aquatic products and other marine emerging industries, accelerate the formation of industrial transformation upgrading forerunner areas and marine emerging industry concentrated area.
Daishan Island, Qushan Island, big and small Yangshan Island, big and small Yushan Island, and big Changtu Island etc. have the advantage of owning greatest resource along the shoreline with deep water, and they are the area with the biggest development potentiality and development space, and they are also the core area of building commodity storage, transiting, processing and transaction centers.
Daishan Island's recent planning is to develop port manufacturing and building a regional international port and shipping service platform with commodity processing is its long-term planning. Qushan Island and the surrounding Shulang Lake, Huangzeshan Island etc. are planned to build international fuel supply centers and transiting centers with deep water of bulk commodities like ore, coal and other stuffs. Big and small Yangshan Island shall focus on container transportation, bonded logistics and corresponding value-added processing of comprehensive service functions, to build Shanghai international shipping center and port and shipping supporting service center. Big and Small Yushan Island shall concentrate on port industry and bulk commodity processing. Big Changtu Island will major in the development of crude oil storage and transportation.
Putuo international tourism island group: based on Putuoshan National Scenic Area, include Zhujiajian Island, Taohua Island, Dengbu Island and Baisha Island. Relying on Buddhist culture, build meditation tourism base, accelerate the formation of a world-class Buddhism tourist destination; in accordance with the overall planning and other relevant planning and requirements of the scenic area, focus on the development of yachts, cruise ships, exercising, paragliding, diving, rock climbing and other new form and new projects of tourism, to create a world-class marine recreational resort island group.
Liuheng port industry island group: take Liuheng island as the core, including Xiazhi Island, Fodu Island, East bailian Island, West bailian Island, Liangtan Island and Huni Island. Present enterprises should focus on the development of high-end specialty vessels, port logistics, bulk commodity processing and other port industries and desalination, deepwater remote supply equipment, marine new energy and other emerging marine industries.
Jintang port and shipping logistics island group: set Jintang Island as the core center, including Cezi Island, Waidiao Island etc. Focus on the development of port logistics industry based on international container transshipment, storage and value-added services, to create a transmitting and storage base of bulk commodity such as oil and a comprehensive logistic hub.
Shengsi fishing and tourism island group: set Sijiao Island as the core center, including Shengshan Island, Gouqi Island, Huanglong Island etc. Promote the central fishing port construction, accelerate the transformation and upgrading of fisheries; develop marine recreational tourism, and build a set of fishing and recreational tourism island groups including port tour, coastal recreation, marine sports, fishing family style, fishing boats and seafood.
Key marine ecological island groups: focus on Zhongjieshan Archipelago, Langgangshan Archipelago, Wuzhishan Archipelago, Ma’an Archipelago, and promote marine ecological conservation. Strengthen the supervision and conservation over marine ecological environment, moderately develop marine fisheries and marine tourism, and increase the intensity discharge of fishery resource proliferation, in order to achieve a virtuous cycle of the marine ecological environment progressively and to create a distinctive marine island group.
Zhoushan should become a base not only to nurture marine science and technology, education, but also for marine engineering, shipbuilding base, in which way it could not only support Zhejiang, but it could also support the whole country’s marine economy. Since opening up, Zhoushan should aim to becoming a new platform, developing free trade zones and free ports, and to forming a new platform and forerunner area of reform and opening up. Meanwhile, Zhoushan should be built into a logistic hub for international port and shipping. The blueprint for the New Area is great and very ambitious, but the key is to making it come true. Based on the above overall objectives, the periodical goals for the development of the Zhoushan New Area are:
The first step, by the year 2015, the construction of “trinity” –port and shipping logistic service system of bulk commodity trading platform, land and sea transportation network, finance and informational support system will have made a major breakthrough, framework for modern marine industry will have been basically formed, industrial layout will have been more reasonable, and the marine ecological environment protection will have been continuously strengthened. Gross marine production will have had a more than 17 percent annual growth. Marine science and technology innovation transmitting system, the integration of urban and rural institutional system will have been basically formed, and modernization of education will have been basically realized. Regional service function will have been improved significantly, the role of opening up portal will have been significantly enhanced, and the annual port cargo throughput will have reached 400 million tons or more.
The second step, by the year of 2020, marine gross production will have been about 20% annual growth, and the annual port cargo throughput will have been over 600 million tons. Marine economic competitiveness and radiation will have been significantly enhanced, marine science and technology and industrial development will have been greatly improved, and the marine ecological environment will have been further improved. Modernization of education will have been fully realized, becoming Chinese major marine science and technology research and development and result transferring center. International logistic hub island, opening up portal Island, marine industry gathering Island, international ecological recreational Island and marine garden construction will have been started successfully.
The third step, by 2030, open economic system will have been further improved, and the world’s leading modern marine industrial system will have been built. People will have had a prosperous life, the relationship between people and the sea will have been more harmonious, and the comprehensive economic and social development will have been top of China. The strategic positioning and development goals for Zhoushan New Area will have been generally achieved.
By establishing these three positioning and five goals, China will have been promoted forward by 30 years. It can be said that, Shenzhen lead the 1980s, Pudong lead the 1990s and the first decade of the new century will be Bohai Ring especially in the Binhai New Area. It should be clear that: Zhoushan will become the forerunner of the fourth decade.
Zhoushan is China’s only archipelago city, which has outstanding and comprehensive advantages of location, resource and industry, and it is also the pioneer area of Zhejiang marine economic development and an important growth pole for the development of marine economy of the Yangtze River Delta region. Accelerate the opening up of Zhoushan Archipelago, create international logistic Island with full play and build marine comprehensive development experimental zone; taking the initiative to set Zhoushan New Area has special significance in promoting marine economic development and innovating marine development models.
Make full use of the advantage of Zhoushan Island and deep-sea coastline, and be active in building a number of deep-sea berths, waterways and anchorages step by step. Plan and construct port and shipping service clusters and a number of large-scale port logistic projects, in order to create Chinese major iron ore transiting and trade, coal transiting, processing and distribution, oil transiting, trade and storage, food transiting, processing and distribution, chemicals transiting, storage and processing and container transshipment bases, promote major projects such as Liangtan Island Wu port ore transiting base, the energy coal transiting base phase 2, and enhance bulk commodity storage capacity. Construct Zhoushan commodity trading service platform, guide large enterprises and international traders to carry out commodity trading, gather domestic and foreign outstanding shipping companies, logistic companies and logistics service company, support finance, insurance, information and other innovative development, promote coastal shipping, joint transportation between the sea and river, and international shipping business development, promote Zhoushan port’s change from an transiting and storage port into one comprehensive logistic harbor, and enhance the radiation effect on the Yangtze River Delta region and the Northeast Asian regions. First, accelerate the development and construction of deep-sea berths. Set the fourth generation of port as the example to accelerate the island-chain international deep-sea ecological port development with a clear function, and build a solid foundation for storage, transiting, processing and trading center for bulk commodities. Promote Waidiao, Shulang Lake, Huangze Mountain, Shuangzi Mountain, East Bailian, Huni and other internal islands deep-sea clusters which are under construction. Focus on developing Qushan, big Changtu, Liuheng, Jintang, Dayang Mountain, north of Zhoushan Island and other shorelines, and construct globally oriented deep-sea, professional and advanced ecological port clusters. Second, improve the storage, transiting and processing capacity of bulk commodity. Relying on and making good use of deep-sea port berths of bulk commodities, plan and construct logistic park in Jintang, Yangshan, Liuheng, Laotangshan and Qushan, in order to build the country’s major storage and transiting base of bulk commodities for oil, LNG, iron ore, coal, grain and chemicals. Plan and construct Jintang, Liuheng and Yangshan container terminals, to create a “water to water” featured container transshipment base. Make a good plan of island-oriented, modern and large-scale bulk commodity processing projects such as crude oil, coal, timber, grain, ore, promoting the development of bulk commodity processing industry. Third, build bulk commodity trading platforms. Promote the construction of Zhoushan bulk commodity trading service platform, accelerate the formation of full bulk commodity trading market system for coal, ore, petroleum chemicals, LNG, shipping, steel, grain, promote core function innovation, trading and clearing model innovation, listed product innovation at the trading center, and gradually form a "Zhoushan price" or "Zhoushan index", building an international bulk commodity comprehensive trading, clearing and pricing center based on Zhejiang, facing China and radiating to the whole world and enhancing the influence and voice in the national bulk commodity markets. Finally, fully develop commodity shipping services. Optimize the formation of large transport fleets, actively participate in national strategic supplies first carriage transportation, and expand the international transportation market. Build China’s "sea into Jiang" second carriage transportation fleets in order to become a national Jiang-sea transportation hub. Promote port and shipping comprehensive business zone and financial business construction, and attract ship financing, ship leasing, financial warehousing, shipping clearing, shipping insurance and other port and sea-related modern service clusters.
Actively cultivate marine emerging industries, expand and strengthen marine pillar industries, enhance and transform marine traditional industries, in order to build Chinese first-class modern marine industrial base. In accordance with the construction of international logistic island, promote the landing of major modern marine industries. Accelerate the integration and improvement of shipbuilding industry, focusing on the development of marine engineering, special ships and marine equipment manufacturing, build Zhejiang ship trading market, and strive to make it major Chinese shipbuilding base, ship repairing and new ship industry new industrialization demonstration base. Accelerate the development of tourism; construct Buddhist cultural attractions and marine leisure destination. Increase the support for the transformation and upgrading of offshore fishing and marine fishing industry, create Chinese major offshore fishing base, enhance the level of deep processing, and improve modern fishing industry system, so as to become a “fishing city”. Comprehensively develop wind energy, tidal energy, wave energy, solar energy, etc., nurture related manufacturing, in order to create comprehensively new marine base for energy development. Focus on the development of the following five industries: ① Marine engineering and marine industries. Cultivate international leading marine engineering equipment manufacturing, and develop deep-sea exploration equipment, deep-sea production facilities, offshore emergency rescue equipment, and deep-sea remote supply equipment. Focus on large container ships, large liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vessels, liquefied natural gas (LNG) ship, cruise ship, yacht, marine fishing, special ships and other high tech, high value added ships and concentrate on the development of modern shipbuilding technology and new green ships. Actively develop ship related industries, and meanwhile improve energy saving ship repair and conversion and dismantling capabilities. ② Marine tourism industry. Accelerate new form of tourism, exploration and introduction of new products, strive to create the world’s leading marine leisure tourism destination and Buddhist tourist destination in an archipelago type, build world class resort islands; focus on the development of island leisure, marine culture, coastal sports, seafood, fishing and other personalized tourisms, explore the development of cruise yacht, marine theme parks and other high end products, in order to build a diversified marine tourism product system; strive for national policy breakthrough for Zhoushan New Area on developing international cruise economy, duty-free or refund in shopping and visitor visa. ③ Comprehensive development and utilization of marine resource industry. Develop and utilize oil and gas in East China Sea and deep sea mineral resources, construct the base for East China Sea oil and gas landing, transiting, storage, and processing and rear service base for operation supplies and equipment supplies; support and develop marine exploration industry, try to establish national marine exploration base and national storage and R&D and processing base for offshore mineral resource; be active in using new marine energy, such as the coupling development of offshore wind energy, solar energy, wave energy etc., explore wind power “non grid” model, promote the comprehensive utilization project of “fuel stored by wind and sunlight” or “gas stored by wind and sunlight”, and explore tide energy, the large scale development of tidal energy, and the wide use of solar energy. ④ Marine bio pharmaceutical industry. Accelerate the development and breakthrough of marine drugs and the key technologies, construct Zhoushan marine biomedical testing and R&D service center, strengthen the R&D of marine biological health products, functional food, bio functional materials, marine biological enzyme, and promote the use of deep sea biological gene. ⑤ Modern marine fisheries. Adhere to the principle of “coastal protection, inshore restoration, offshore development”, optimize the structure of the marine fishing operations; protect and restore coastal fisheries, construct marine ranch, and develop carbon sinks fisheries; develop marine biological breeding, and promote efficient, ecological, safe and intensive seawater breeding patterns; be active in building a modern offshore fleet with advanced facilities and excellent equipment, and accelerate the construction of national and foreign offshore fishing bases.
Coordinate national security and economic development, expand Zhoushan’s opening to the outside world on the premise of ensuring military installations and the confidentiality of military operations. Establish Liuheng, Jintang Port to be the primary shipping open ports, and encourage eligible areas to apply for the establishment of special customs supervision according to the procedure. Promote the expansion of Zhoushan airport. According to the “three step” strategic plan, explore the establishment of a free trade zone in Zhoushan. The first step is to accelerate the construction of Zhoushan Port comprehensive bonded zone. Make full use of the country’s existing reform and opening up policies, fully absorb the practice and experience from other domestic comprehensive bonded zones, seek to carry out import duty free retail pilot; foster three markets namely commodity bonded trading, ship and marine engineering leasing, imported goods show; list Zhoushan Port comprehensive bonded zone as a vehicle importing port; expand bonded fuel business, choose to build Zhoushan bonded oil trading market; carry out ship registration system, international shipping taxation, offshore financial services and leasing business pilots etc. The second step is to select the appropriate region to construct Zhoushan Free Trade Park, and implement the internationally accepted policy for free trade zone. Should it not only learn and follow international practice, but it also should take into account the actual situation of Zhoushan New Area and China, forming a Zhoushan Free Trade Park system in line with international standards, and at the same time with Chinese and Zhoushan New Area features. The basic content is the implementation of trade freedom, investment freedom, financial freedom and transportation of freedom, making it the most active areas with the highest freedom among Chinese economic activities. The third step is to construct the whole Zhoushan into free port like Singapore and Hong Kong in the long term. On the basis of the experience gained in constructing a free trade zone in Zhoushan, learn from Singapore and Hong Kong for Freeport experience, further expand the scope of opening, and try to achieve the final goal of implementing Freeport policy on the whole territory of Zhoushan, thus achieving trade and investment freedom, and becoming China’s important sea portal in Yangtze River Delta region and the Yangtze River.
Requirements are that major infrastructures such as transportation, water, energy, information, disaster prevention and mitigation should be coordinated to guarantee the development of the New Area. The top priority is to improve the comprehensive transportation network, strengthen the channel construction, and form fast and convenient transportation connections with Shanghai and Ningbo. That is, to form the sea-land channel of Zhoushan - Daishan – Dayangshan - Shanghai Fengxian, we call it Hangzhouwan Oriental Channels. Hangzhouwan Oriental Channel can be divided into 2: one is the rail cum bridge from Shanghai Fengxian to Shengsi Dayangshan island rail cum Bridge, and the other is the bridge crossing the sea from Zhoushan Island to Daishan Island to Dayangshan Island. Constructing Hangzhouwan Oriental Channel is significant for implementing national maritime power strategy, improving regional development pattern, deepening the opening of coastal development; improving strategic resource supplies and serving national economic security services; expanding Zhejiang development, accelerating the construction of “two rich Zhejiang” and building the Zhoushan New Area port and shipping logistic hub.
Promote the construction of Zhoushan Marine Science Center of a high level, enhance the construction of transformation platform of Chinese Academy of Sciences Research Center Zhoushan Research Center, Zhejiang University Zhoushan Research Center and Marine Science and Technology Innovation Center. Support and construct a set of marine science base and incubators, support Chinese major marine and scientific research, and build Chinese new marine technology research and development base. Implement marine talent engineering and attract outstanding foreign marine institutions to co-found marine colleges in Zhoushan, encourage domestic outstanding marine colleges to set up sea-related institutions, practice and research base, creating an important marine education bases in China of marine professionals.
Adhere to the principle of people-oriented, eco-system, overall planning, highlighting features and coordinated development, and gather natural elements such as port and shipping, finance, business, information, and research. Highlight Island features, and optimize urban structure; strengthen the ecological construction of downtown and fishing (agriculture) villages, increase mining island characteristics and culture, historical relics protection, and ecological landscape restoration, promote the integration of urban and rural infrastructure and the equalization of basic public services, improve the quality of island living. Pay attention to island function oriented division and differentiation, optimize the industrial layout, and highlight characteristics of different cities and towns of the island, building an island type gardening city with beautiful scenery and harmonious ecology.
Based on the theory of encouraging the few to become rich first,China has given preference to eastern coastal area before developing the western region. Some special zones such as Shenzhen, Shanghai and Tianjin have been given the priority. At present, there are a total of 11 special zones. With the addition of 5 zones this year, the opening-up policy has further boosted national economy. This paper has made a study of Zhoushan Islands New Area oriented towards marine economy in the Chinese economic zone. The addition of national economic zone will contribute to the economic development focusing on Asia Pacific Area (hereinafter referred to as Asian Pacific). In response to China’s economic development of Asian Pacific, South Korean government should take the following factors into consideration.
Firstly, South Korean government should have a good understanding of China’s strategy for marine economic zone and also speed up the construction of Saemangeum Korea-ChinaEconomicCooperativePark (hereinafter referred to as Saemangeum). Compared with China’s economic zone, Saemangeum still lags far behind. In order to gain a leadership in the Northeast Asian economy, China has laid out 5 nation-level economic zones in 2014. In the 2014 APEC conference, the Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific was officially formed. Hence, South Korea should also take actions in response to China’s policy of economic expansion on a global scale. It can be concluded that the friendly cooperative tie between the two governments will be of great value to the early-stage development of Saemangeum.
Secondly, South Korea should make the best of the agreement of free trade with China that acts as the world factory and world market at the same time. Although South Korea has sought to maintain economic growth by retaining foreign investment, it has not yet put the massive introduction of foreign companies on the agenda. Hence, South Korea should turn Saemangeum under the FTA agreement with China into a platform devoted to attracting more foreign investment. Starting from China, it should also take full advantage of the technical ability, manufacturing force and Korean Wave to engage in strategic investment. It should gain an upper hand in occupying the Chinese market during the course of competing with other countries such as Europe and USA.
To conclude, China has intensified its influence on the Asia Pacific Region through its strategy of expanding economic zone. The driving engine of China’s economy has also moved from the eastern coastal provinces to the fast-growing Yellow Sea Economic Zone. Under the influence of China’s economic growth, Saemangeum located in the economic zone will act as the main platform for expanding trade between China and South Korea. It should be noted that South Korea must take measures to minimize the potential threat posed by China’s economic expansion and retain the foreign investment. In a word, it should accelerate the establishment of Saemangeum so as to better enter China’s domestic market.
12. 2011-2014 [Zhoushan Evening News]
13. 2012-2014 [Zhoushan Daily]
14. [China Ocean News] Vol.2014 P.3-4
[Table1.] China’s Nation-level New Area