New records of the marine pennate diatoms in Korea

  • cc icon
  • ABSTRACT

    A study on indigenous diatoms was carried out at 49 sites from November 2008 to December 2012 in the marine and brackish plankton and benthic ecosystem in Korea. The structure of small-sized pennate diatoms was examined by means of light and scanning electron microscopy. Twenty species of diatoms were newly identified and divided into five orders, 18 families, and nine genera in this study. The nomenclature, references, specimens examined, specimen descriptions, photographs, and distribution profiles are reported here. The newly reported pennate diatoms imply several reasons why these taxa have not been recorded previously in Korea and we present the strategy to understand the diversity of diatoms in Korea.


  • KEYWORD

    indigenous , Korea , new records , pennate diatoms

  • INTRODUCTION

    Diatom classification can be made according to two groups based on morphology (Schütt 1896, Simonsen 1979), though recent insight on diatom classification has been debated (Williams and Kociolek 2011). Most planktonic diatoms in the marine environment consist of morphologically centric diatoms, which are classical concept following Simonsen (1979), such as Actinocyclus Ehrenberg, Coscinodiscus Ehrenberg, Chaetoceros Ehrenberg and Thalassiosira Cleve. The morphologically pennate diatoms have been mainly reported to live in diverse substrates such as plants, macroalgae, hard rock and sediments (Round et al. 1990, Joh 2013). Several planktonic pennate diatoms have been mainly reported from the nitzschioid diatoms such as Bacillaria Gmelin, Fragilariopsis Hustedt, and Pseudo-nitzschia Peragallo (Hasle and Syvertsen 1996); other planktonic diatoms have been overlooked due to the difficulty of their identification.

    A master plan entitled “The Project on Survey and Excavation of Korean Indigenous Species” at the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), under the Ministry of Environment of Korea, was established in 2006. We conducted the survey and excavation of diatoms in brackish and marine waters of Korea from 2006 to the present. Lee et al. (2012) investigated the newly recorded diatoms in Korea in the first conclusive study of the species, reporting 60 species in 39 genera with illustrations based on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. This is the second serial study for newly recorded pennate diatoms in Korea during the investigation of “Survey and Excavation of Korean Indigenous Species”. Twenty species of diatom are for the first time documented in this study.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    The specimens were collected from 46 sites from December 2008 to November 2012 from brackish and coastal waters of Korea (Table 1). All samples were collected by using 20-μm mesh-sized phytoplankton nets with vertical and/or horizontal towing, and the collected net samples were immediately fixed with 4% neutralized formalin. To observe the fine structures and characteristics of each diatom, we removed the cell organelles and organic matter using concentrated HCl and saturated KMnO4 (Hasle and Fryxell 1970). Some acid-cleaned materials were affixed to permanent slides that were mounted in Pleurax. The permanent slides were observed by means of light microscopy (LM): Axioskop 40 (Zeiss, Jena, Germany) with an AxioCam MRc 5 (Zeiss) and Eclipse 80i (Nikon, Tokyo, Japan) with and DS-Fi1 (Nikon) digital camera. The remaining cleaned materials were mounted on the aluminum stubs and coated with gold-palladium to examine the fine structures using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (JSM-5600LV; Jeol, Tokyo, Japan). The dimensions of diatoms were measured from micrographs using ImageJ ver. 1.32 software. Diatom identifications were mainly based on the studies of Hendey (1964), Round et al. (1990), Hasle and Syvertsen (1996), Krammer and Lange-Bertalot (1997, 1999, 2004) and a number of references, including the original description for each taxon.

    RESULTS

      >  Order Achnanthales Silva Family Cocconeidaceae Kutzing

    Cocconeiopsis wrightii (O’Meara) Witkowski 2000 (Fig. 1a-1d)

    Basionym: Cocconeis wrightii O’Meara 1867.

    Synonyms: Cocconeis biflexa Schmidt 1894; Orthoneis wrightii (O’Meara) Cleve 1895; Navicula schonkenii Hustedt 1955; Navicula bijzexa (Schmidt) Giffen 1970.

    References: Riaux-Gobin and Compère 2004, p. 65, pl. III, figs 16–22, pl. IV, figs. d, e.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130085.

    Valves elliptical to almost rounded and slightly convex, length 12.8−22 μm, width 8.5−16 μm. Striae radiate, composed of rounded or slightly elongated areolae, 8−11 in 10 μm. One or two rows of areolae smaller near the margin. Raphe straight. End nodules rounded and distant from the valve apices, central endings pear-form and distant, central area transapically expanded and connected to an H-shaped area.

    Korean distribution: Cocconeiopsis wrightii was observed on October 29, 2010 at four sites in East Sea (Table 2).

      >  Order Bacillariales Hendey Family Bacillariaceae Ehrenberg

    Nitzschia improvisa Simonsen 1960 (Fig. 1e and 4a)

    References: Lange-Bertalot and Krammer 1987, p. 44, 60; Krammer and Lange-Bertalot 1997, pl. 2l.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130087.

    Valves linear with capitate pole. Length 117.5 μm, width 6.25 μm. Striae very clearly visible in LM and areolae resolvable, 24−25 in 10 μm. Raphe system fibulate, marginal. Fibulae square, regularly spaced, 8−10 in 10 μm. Raphe straight with distinct constriction in central area.

    Korean distribution: Nitzschia improvisa was observed five times during this study (Table 2). Although N. improvisa has been reported from Yellow Sea, South Sea, and East Sea of Korea, this species mainly occurred in South Sea.

    Nitzschia valdestriata Aleem & Hustedt 1951 (Figs. 1f-1h and 4b-4d)

    References: Krammer and Lange-Bertalot 1997, p. 121, pl. 84, figs. 9-12.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130092.

    Valves bilaterally symmetrical, elliptical to linear-elliptical, with bluntly rounded poles. Length 6.1−12.1 μm, width 2.4−2.8 μm. Striae very clearly visible in LM, 15 in 10 μm, but areolae unresolvable. Raphe system fibulate, marginal. Fibulae square, regularly spaced. Central raphe endings absent. Raphes of the two valves lie at opposite sides.

    Korean distribution: Nitzschia valdestriata was observed from four sites (Table 2): two times from South Sea and East Sea, respectively.

      >  Order Naviculaes Bessey Family Berkeleyaceae D.G. Mann

    Parlibellus hamulifer (Grunow) Cox 1988 (Figs. 1i-1l and 4e-4f)

    Basionym: Navicula hamulifera Grunow ex Cleve & Grunow 1880.

    References: Hustedt 1961, p. 311, fig. 1430; Cox 1988, p. 24.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130093.

    Valves rhombic-lanceolate with sub-acute apices. Length 44.5–60.7 μm, width 11.2–15.7 μm. Striae poroidal, 19–21 in 10 μm, more or less parallel and throughout the length of the valve. Raphe straight and slightly curved in central area, extending almost to the apices, deflected to one side at the poles helictoglossae.

    Korean distribution: Parlibellus hamulifer was observed ten times in this study (Table 2). This species mainly occurred from East Sea with P. rhombicus.

    Parlibellus rhombicus (Gregory) Cox 1988 (Fig. 2c and 2d)

    Basionym: Navicula rhombica Gregory 1855.

    Synonyms: Navicula libellus Gregory 1857; Navicula libellus sensu Hustedt 1962.

    References: Cox 1988, p. 25, figs 17, 33-38.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130094.

    Valves rhombic-lanceolate with acute apices. Length 34.6–48.0 μm, width 8.9–10.8 μm. Striae poroidal, 26–29 in 10 μm, radial in valve centre. Raphe straight and slightly curved in central area, extending almost to the apices, deflected to one side at the poles helictoglossae.

    Korean distribution: Parlibellus rhombicus was observed seven times at the coasts of East Sea (Table 2).

      >  Family Naviculaceae Kutzing

    Navicula diabolica Geissler & Gerloff 1963 (Fig. 4g)

    References: Krammer and Lange-Bertalot 1999, p. 210, pl. 78, fig. 28.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130095.

    Valves linear-lanceolate to rhombic with bluntly rounded ends. Length 5–6 μm, width 2–2.5 μm. Raphe filiform, axial congruent with the media rib, very narrow, linear, central area and other structures in the LM not accurately differentiable. Striae parallel, 35 in 10 μm, Areolae fully developed, distributed only in the margin. Raphe straight, terminal end with a small helictoglossa internally.

    Korean distribution: Navicula diabolica was only observed from Seopo-myeon, Sacheon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do on November 2, 2012 (Table 2).

    Navicula pavillardii Hustedt 1939: 635 (Figs. 2e-2f and 4h)

    References: Hendey 1964, p. 204; Krammer and Lange-Bertalot 1999, p. 118, pl. 39, figs 4, 5.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130096.

    Valves linear to lanceolate sometimes in the middle concave edges and wedge-shaped, lean, fairly acute to obtuse rounded ends. Length 36.9−57.7 μm, width 7.7–8.2 μm. Striae continuous radially around 12–14 in 10 μm, areolae fairly coarse to 28 in 10 μm. Raphe straight. Central raphe ending slightly expanded. Polar raphe fissure hooked to one side.

    Korean distribution: Navicula pavillardii was only observed from Daeseo-myeon, Goheung-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea on November 2, 2012 (Table 2).

      >  Family Pleurosigmataceae Mereschowsky

    Gyrosigma subtile (Brebisson) Reid 2003 (Figs. 2a and 5a-5b)

    Basionym: Navicula subtilis Brébisson in Kützing 1849.

    Synonym: Scalprum subtile (Brébisson) Kuntze 1891; Pleurosigma subtile (Brébisson) Ralfs in Pritchard 1861.

    References: Kützing 1849, p. 87; Pritchard 1861, p.917; Kuntze 1891, p. 919; Reid and Williams 2003, p. 139, figs 57–61.

    Valve vaulted, linear, sigmoid, tapering to obtuse apices. Length 335–400 μm, width 30–40 μm. Transverse striae 16–26 in 10 μm, longitudinal striae 14–16 in 10 μm. Raphe central, with double curvature. Central area transapically offset, with flattened central bars. Central hyaline area large. A row of pores, arranged in an arc, occurs above the helictoglossa.

    Korean distribution: Gyrosigma subtile was observed at two sites in South Sea and East Sea, respectively (Table 2).

    Gyrosigma turgida (Stidolph) Stidolph 1988 (Figs. 2b and 5c-5d)

    Basionym: Gyrosigma balticum var. turgidum Stidolph 1980.

    Synonym: Gyrosigma perthense John 1983.

    References: Stidolph 1980, p. 385; John 1983, p. 115, pl. 48, figs. 1–3; Stidolph 1988, p. 380, figs. 6-10.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130097.

    Valves linear, sigmoid, oblong, gently inflated at the center. Length 148–256 μm, width 18-19 μm. Transverse striae 20–25 in 10 μm, longitudinal striae 19–20 in 10 μm. Raphe undulate, eccentric. Central area transapically offset, with smooth flattened central bars. No hyaline area at the apex. A series of minute pores surrounds the apex of the valve beyond the terminal raphe fissures and the helictoglossa.

    Korean distribution: Gyrosigma turgida was observed two times in Yellow Sea and South Sea (Table 2).

    Pleurosigma decorum Smith 1853 (Figs. 2g and 5e-5f)

    Synonym: Gyrosigma decorum (W. Smith) Griffith & Henfrey 1856; Scalprum decorum (Smith) Kuntze 1891.

    References: Smith 1853, 63, pl. 21, fig. 196; Griffith and Henfrey 1856, p. 302; pl. 11, fig. 26; Kuntze 1891, p. 919.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130098.

    Valves lanceolate, sigmoid, with sides between the middle and the end one convex and the opposite barely concave, vaulted and with sub-acute apices. Length 200–310 µm, width 20-28 µm. Transverse striae 18–20 in 10 µm, longitudinal striae 15–18 in 10 µm. Central area conspicuous, saddle-shaped, internally short and raised, with central bars surrounding the central nodule. Terminal endings finishing in helictoglossa turned by a siliceous ridge.

    Korean distribution: Pleurosigma decorum was observed two times from Yellow Sea and South Sea (Table 2).

    Pleurosigma inflatum Shadbolt 1854 (Figs. 2h and 5g-5h)

    Synonym: Pleurosigma naviculaceum Brébisson 1854, Pleurosigma transversal (Griffith & Henfrey) Smith 1856.

    References: Shadbolt 1854, p. 16, pl. 1, fig. 9; Brébisson 1854, p. 255, pl. 1, fig. 7; Smith 1856, p. 96.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130099.

    Valve only slightly sigmoid, broadly lanceolate, with acutely rounded and slightly rostrate apices. At valve center slightly vaulted, towards the apices more strongly vaulted. Length 148−150 µm, width 16−26 µm. Transverse striae 22−30 in 10 µm, longitudinal striae 22−30 in 10 µm. Central area slightly convex, with thin central bars. Central hyaline area large.

    Korean distribution: Pleurosigma inflatum was observed at four sites in South Sea and East Sea (Table 2).

    Pleurosigma patagonicum (Ferrario & Sar) Sterrenburg & Sar 2012 (Figs. 2i and 5i-5j)

    Synonym: Pleurosigma chilensis var. patagonica Ferrario & Sar 1990.

    References: Ferrario and Sar 1990, p. 201, figs. 1–6; Sar et al. 2012, p. 248, figs. 59–76.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130102.

    Valves narrowly lanceolate to sub-rhomboidal, straight, tapering gradually towards the acute apices, slightly vaulted near the ends. Length 98-152 µm, width 10−17 µm. Transverse striae 20−25 in 10 µm, longitudinal striae 15−16 in 10 µm. Central area very small, orbicular, symmetric, funnel-shaped. Internal apices with one or two isolated pores in apical position and two rows of slits placed laterally at the last section of raphe-sternum towards the helictoglossa. No central hyaline area.

    Korean distribution: Pleurosigma patagonicum was observed at two sites from East Sea (Table 2).

    Pleurosigma speciosum Smith 1852 (Figs. 2j and 5k-5l)

    Synonym: Gyrosigma speciosum (Smith) Griffith & Henfrey 1856; Scalprum speciosum (Smith) Kuntze 1891.

    References: Smith 1852, p. 6, pl. 1, fig. 3; Griffith and Henfrey 1856, p. 302, pl. 11, fig. 28; Kuntze 1891, p. 919.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130103.

    Valves linear and slightly attenuated at the apices, which are obtuse. Length 268−270 µm, width 28−33 µm. Transverse striae 16−17 in 10 µm, longitudinal striae 10−11 in 10 µm. Central bars smooth and slender and of approximately equal length. Central hyaline area adjacent to the central bars.

    Korean distribution: Pleurosigma speciosum was observed two times in East Sea (Table 2).

    Pleurosigma williamsii Reid 2002 (Figs. 2k and 5m-5n)

    References: Reid 2002, p. 80, figs. 9-17.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130104.

    Description: Valves lanceolate, barely sigmoid, gently curving to obtusely rounded ends. Length 136−192 µm, width 22−34 µm. Transverse striae 18−20 in 10 µm, longitudinal striae 1213 in 10 µm. Central bars smooth and of approximately equal length. No central hyaline area next to the central bars. Extra siliceous thickening at the apices and valve margin, giving a hyaline area around the edge of the valve.

    Korean distribution: Pleurosigma williamsii was observed three times in Yellow Sea and East Sea (Table 2).

      >  Order Surirellales D.G. Mann Family Auriculaceae Hendey

    Auricula complexa (Gregory) Cleve 1894 (Fig. 3a)

    Basionym: Amphiprora complexa Gregory 1857.

    References: Gomes et al. 1989, p. 6, fig. 1; Ruck and Kociolek 2004, pl. 2, fig. 2; Teanpisut and Patarajinda 2007, p. 122, pl. 2, fig. 31.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130105.

    Valve with ear-shaped outline. Length 60.0 μm, width 35.6 μm. Striae flabellate, radiating from ventral margin to dorsal raphe canal, 16−18 in 10 μm. Costae frequently bifurcated. Raphe canal is eccentric, present on slightly raised keel along the dorsal margin. Mantle well-developed on dorsal side only, becoming almost absent at the ventral margin.

    Korean distribution: Auricula complexa was observed at two sites from South Sea (Table 2).

    Auricula flabelliformis M.Voigt 1960 (Figs. 3b-3c and 4i)

    References: Ruck and Kociolek 2004, pl. 2, fig. 5, pl. 6, fig. 3.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130106.

    Valve with shellfish-shaped outline. Length 82−115.7 μm, width 56.7−75.7 μm. Striae flabellate, radiating from center of the ventral margin to dorsal raphe canal, 16−18 in 10 μm. Costae frequently bifurcated. Raphe canal surrounded valve margin, present on slightly raised keel along entire valve.

    Korean distribution: Auricula flabellifromis was observed at three sites from Yellow Sea and East Sea (Table 2).

      >  Family Surirellaceae Kutzing

    Campylodiscus ambiguus Greville 1860 (Fig. 3d and 3e)

    References: Schmidt 1875, pl. 18, figs. 23–26; Ruck and Kociolek 2004, p. 163, pl. 36, figs. 1–7, p. 165, pl. 37, figs. 8–12, p. 167, pl. 38, figs. 13−18.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130107.

    Valve circular to sub-circular, saddle-like, with barely noticeable ribs, 45−107 µm in diameter. A circular and shallow navel in the middle of the valve depression. Central area marked by two ridges that expand the length of the axis. The central ridges and the area between them are hyaline without any striations.

    Korean distribution: Campylodiscu ambiguus was only observed at Aewol-ri, Aewol-eup, Jeju-si, Jeju-do on March 11, 2012 (Table 2).

    Campylodiscus decorus Brebisson 1854 (Fig. 3f-3g)

    References: Schmidt 1875, pl. 14, figs. 4–5; Stidolph 1980, p. 403, pl. 14, fig. 10; Lobban et al. 2012, p. 469, pl. 64, figs. 5–6.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130108.

    Valve circular to sub-circular, saddle-like, with barely noticeable ribs, 28 µm in diameter. Central area narrow and marginal ribs expand toward the center. Infundibula absent, single tubes connect the interior cell to the canal raphe. Fenestral openings have one or two fenestral bars each. Narrow ribs extending from keel to very narrow lanceolate. The pores in this species are resolvable in LM.

    Korean distribution: Campylodiscus decorus was observed two times in East Sea (Table 2).

    Campylodiscus samoensis Grunow in Schmidt 1875 (Figs. 3h-3i and 4j)

    References: Schmidt 1875, pl. 15, figs. 19–20; Schmidt 1897, pl. 207, fig. 14; Stidolph et al. 2012, pl. 21, fig. 16.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130109.

    Valve circular to sub-circular, saddle-like, with barely noticeable ribs. Infundibula visible around the margin of the valve. Central area marked by two ridges that extend the length of the apical axis. The central ridges and the area between them are transapically striated.

    Korean distribution: Camplyodiscus samoensis was observed at four sites from Yellow Sea and South Sea (Table 2).

      >  Order Thalassiophysales D.G. Mann Family Catenulaceae Mereschkowsky

    Catenula adhaerens (Mereschkowsky) Mereschkowsky 1903 (Figs. 3j and 4k)

    Basionym: Navicula adhaerens Mereschkovsky 1901.

    References: Sundbäck and Medlin 1986, p. 284, figs. 1–23.

    Specimen examined: NIBRDI0000130110.

    Valves bilaterally symmetrical, elliptical to linear-elliptical, with rounded apices. Apices slightly deflected to the ventral part. Length 7−21 μm, width 1.5−3.5 μm. Striae very fine, unresolvable. Raphe close to the ventral part, slightly deflected toward the dorsal part. Central raphe endings slightly expanded. Terminal raphe endings distant from the apices.

    Korean distribution: Catenula adhaerens was observed twice in the Yellow Sea and East Sea (Table 2).

    DISCUSSION

    The number of diatoms has been estimated approximately 100,000 species in over 1,000 genera (Mann 1999, Fourtanier and Kociolek 1999, 2003). Despite of the high species diversity in the world, there have been approximately 1,000 diatom species in Korea (Lee et al. 1995, Lee 1995, Lee et al. 2012, Joh 2013). The diversity of diatoms in Korea is relatively low compared to the world record. In the present study, the new recorded pennate diatoms imply several reasons why the taxa have not been recorded in Korea. First, some genera such as Navicula, Nitzschia, Gyrosigma, Pleurosigma, and Campylodiscus have the high species diversity. These genera commonly include more than 100 species reported from worldwide. It is difficult to identify the species positively through the comparison from widespread diverse literatures. In addition, many taxa have been corrected nomenclaturally and separated to the new genera (Round et al. 1990, Lange-Bertalot 2001). It is needed to confirm the validity of species from widespread literatures before the reporting of species newly in Korea, and to intensively study the highly diverse genera like Thalassiosira and Chaetoceros (Park and Lee 2010, Lee et al. 2014).

    Second, some species is probably confused to the morphologically similar taxa. Cocconeiopsis wrightii has been primarily described as Cocconeis wrightii (O’meara). The features of C. wrightii caused the confusion of positive identification: The frustule outline of C. wrightii is similar to the raphe-bearing valve of Cocconeis, but the species does not have the araphid valve like Cocconeis; the coarse and radial arrangement of areolae is similar to Mastogloica bionata, but the partectal ring of Mastogloia species lack in C. wrightii (Riaux-Gobin and Compère 2004). These confusions may be caused when the specimens were only observed under LM. Therefore, it is essential to examine specimens by using electron microscope for avoiding these confusions.

    Third, several species only occurred from specific habitat. Most pennate diatoms have been mainly reported to live in diverse substrates such as plants, macroalgae, hard rock, and sediments (Round et al. 1990, Joh 2013). Catenula adhaerens has been reported from benthos and sand grains as the episammic diatom in worldwide (Sundbäck and Medlin 1986). In this study, C. adhaerens was also collected from the seaside (Table 2). The floristic studies on diatom from specific area such as seaside contribute to understand the diversity of Korean diatom. Beside above mentioned reasons concerning new recorded taxa in Korea, there are more various reasons such as nano-sized species, weakly silicified species, etc. To understand the diversity of diatom in Korea, it is mostly important to pay the consistent attention with continuous monitoring from diverse areas.

  • 1. Brebisson AD 1854 Note sur quelques diatomees marines rares ou peu connues, du littoral de Cherbourg [Mem Soc Sci Nat Cherbourg] Vol.2 P.241-258 google
  • 2. Cox EJ 1988 Taxonomic studies on the diatom genus Navicula V. The establishment of Parlibellus gen. nov. for some members of Navicula sect. Microstigmaticae [Diatom Res] Vol.3 P.9-38 google doi
  • 3. Ferrario ME, Sar EA 1990 Ultraestructura de Pleurosigma chilensis var. patagonica nov. var. (Bacillariophyceae) [Darwiniana] Vol.30 P.201-204 google
  • 4. Fourtanier E, Kociolek JP 1999 Catalogue of the diatom genera [Diatom Res] Vol.14 P.1-190 google doi
  • 5. Fourtanier E, Kociolek JP 2003 Addendum to “Catalogue of the Diatom Genera” [Diatom Res] Vol.18 P.245-258 google doi
  • 6. Gomes NA, Eskinazi-Leca E, da Silva-Cunha MGG 1989 Ocorr?ncia de Auricula complexa (Bacillariophyceae) na plataforma continental de pernambuco [Acta Bot Bras] Vol.3 P.1-7 google doi
  • 7. Griffith JW, Henfrey A, Henfrey A 1856 Diatomaceae P.199-205 google
  • 8. Hasle GR, Fryxell GA 1970 Diatoms: cleaning and mounting for light and electron microscopy [Trans Am Microsc Soc] Vol.89 P.469-474 google doi
  • 9. Hasle GR, Syvertsen EE, Tomas CR 1996 Marine diatoms P.5-385 google
  • 10. Hendey NI 1964 An Introductory Account of the Smaller Algae of British Coastal Waters. Part V, Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms) google
  • 11. Hustedt F, Rabenhorsts L 1961 Die Kieselalalgen Deutschlands, Osterreichs und der Schweiz unter Berucksichtigung der ubrigen Lander Europas sowie der angrenzenden Meeresgebiete;Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Osterreich und der Schweiz, Band 7, Teil 3, Lief. 1 P.1-160 google
  • 12. Joh G 2013 Species diversity of the old genus Navicula Bory (Bacillariophyta) on intertidal sand-flats in the Nakdong River estruary [Korea. J Ecol Environ] Vol.36 P.371-390 google doi
  • 13. John J 1983 The Diatom Flora of the Swan River Estuary Western Australia. Bibliotheca Phycologica, Band 64 google
  • 14. Krammer K, Lange-Bertalot H, Ettl H 1997 Bacillariophyceae 2. Teil: Bacillariaceae, Epithemiaceae, Surirellaceae P.1-610 google
  • 15. Krammer K, Lange-Bertalot H, Ettl H 1999 Bacillariophyceae 1. Teil: Navicula A: Text P.1-440 google
  • 16. Krammer K, Lange-Bertalot H, Ettl H 2004 Bacillariophyceae 4. Teil: Achnanthaceae, Kritische Erganzungen zu Navicula (Lineolatae), Gomphonema Gesamtliteraturverzeichnis Teil 1-4 P.1-468 google
  • 17. Kuntze O 1891 Revisio Generum Plantarum google
  • 18. Kutzing FT 1849 Species Algarum google
  • 19. Lange-Bertalot H 2001 Diatoms of Europe Volume 2: Navicula sensu-stricto 10 genera separated from Navicula sensu lato Frustulia google
  • 20. Lange-Bertalot H, Krammer K 1987 Bacillariaceae Epithemiaceae Surirellaceae. Neae und wenig bekannte Taxa, neae Kombinationen und Synonyme sowie Bemerkungen und Erganzungen zu den Naviculaceae [Bibl Diatomol] Vol.15 P.289 google
  • 21. Lee JH 1995 Additional check-list of marine planktonic algae in the coastal waters of Korea. I. Bacillariophyceae [J Nat Sci Sangmyung Women's Univ] Vol.2 P.71-198 google
  • 22. Lee K, Choi JK, Lee JH 1995 Taxonomic studies on diatoms in Korea. II. Check-list [Kor J Phycol Suppl] Vol.10 P.13-89 google
  • 23. Lee SD, Park JS, Lee JH 2012 New record of diatom species in Korean coastal waters [Korean J Environ Biol] Vol.30 P.245-271 google
  • 24. Lee SD, Park JS, Yun SM, Lee JH 2014 Critical criteria for identification of the genus Chaetoceros (Bacillariophyta) based on setae ultrastructure. I. Subgenus Chaetoceros [Phycoloiga] Vol.53 P.174-187 google doi
  • 25. Lobban CS, Schefter M, Jordan RW, Arai Y, Sasaki A, Theriot EC, Ashworth M, Ruck EC, Pennesi C 2012 Coral-reef diatoms (Bacillariophyta) from Guam: new records and preliminary checklist, with emphasis on epiphytic species from farmer-fish territories [Micronesica] Vol.43 P.237-479 google doi
  • 26. Mann DG 1999 The species concept in diatoms [Phycologia] Vol.38 P.437-495 google doi
  • 27. Park JS, Lee JH 2010 A study on the fine structure of the marine diatoms in Korean coastal waters: genus Thalassiosira 5 [Algae] Vol.25 P.121-131 google doi
  • 28. Pritchard A, Arlidge J.T., Archer W., Ralfs J., Williamson W.C. 1861 A History of Infusoria, Living and Fossil: arranged according to Die infusionsthierchen of C.G. Ehrenberg; containing colored engravings, illustrative of all the genera, and descriptions of all the species in that work, with several new ones; to which is appended an account of those recently discovered in the chalk formations. xii google
  • 29. Reid G 2002 Four new species of Pleurosigma (Bacillariophyta) from Alexandria, Egypt [Bot J Linn Soc] Vol.140 P.77-92 google doi
  • 30. Reid G, Williams DM 2003 Systematics of the Gyrosigma balticum complex (Bacillariophyta), including three new species [Phycol Res] Vol.51 P.126-142 google doi
  • 31. Riaux-Gobin C, Compere P 2004 Two marine cocconeid diatoms from Kerguelen's Land (Austral Ocean, Indian Sector): Cavinula kerguelensis nom. nov. and Cocconeiopsis wrightii [Diatom Res] Vol.19 P.59-69 google doi
  • 32. Round FE, Crawford RM, Mann DG 1990 The Diatoms: Biology and Morphology of the Genera google
  • 33. Ruck EC, Kociolek JP 2004 Preliminary phylogeny of the family Surirellaceae (Bacillariophyta) [Bibl Diatomol] Vol.50 P.1-236 google
  • 34. Sar EA, Hinz F, Sterrenburg FAS, Lavigne AS, Lofeudo S, Sunesen I 2012 Species of Pleurosigma (Pleurosigmataceae) with lanceolate or slightly sigmoid valve outlines: analysis of type material [Diatom Res] Vol.27 P.237-253 google doi
  • 35. Schmidt A 1875 Atlas der Diatomaceenkunde. Aschersleben, Commissions-Verlag Von Ludwig Siever’s Buchandlung Series I (Heft 5) google
  • 36. Schmidt A 1897 Atlas der Diatomaceenkunde. Leipzig. O.R. Reisland Series V (Heft 52-53) google
  • 37. Schutt F, Engler A, Prantl K 1896 Bacillariales P.31-153 google
  • 38. Shadbolt G 1854 A note on the proposed new genus Actinophaenia [Trans Microsc Soc London] Vol.2 P.1-16 google doi
  • 39. Simonsen R 1979 The diatom system: ideas on phylogeny [Bacillaria] Vol.2 P.9-71 google
  • 40. Smith W 1852 Notes on the Diatomaceae with descriptions of British Species included in the genus Pleurosigma [Ann Mag Nat Hist] Vol.9 P.1-12 google
  • 41. Smith W 1853 Synopsis of the British Diatomaceae google
  • 42. Smith W 1856 Synopsis of the British Diatomaceae google
  • 43. Stidolph SR 1980 A record of some coastal marine diatoms from Porirua Harbour, North Island, New Zealand [New Zeal J Bot] Vol.18 P.379-403 google doi
  • 44. Stidolph SR 1988 Observations and remarks on morphology and taxonomy of diatom genera Gyrosigma Hassall and Pleurosigma W. Smith [Nova Hedwigia] Vol.47 P.377-388 google
  • 45. Stidolph SR, Sterrenburg FAS, Smith KEL, Kraberg A 2012 Stuart R. Stidolph Diatom Atlas. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1163 google
  • 46. Sundback K, Medlin LK 1986 A light and electron microscopic study of the epipsammic diatom Catenula adhaerens mereschkowsky [Diatom Res] Vol.1 P.283-290 google doi
  • 47. Teanpisut K, Patarajinda S 2007 Species Diversity of Marine Planktonic Diatoms around Chang Islands, Trat Province [Kasetsart J (Nat Sci)] Vol.41 P.114-124 google
  • 48. Williams DM, Kociolek JP, Seckbach J, Kociolek JP 2011 An overview of diatom classification with some prospects for the future P.49-92 google
  • [Table 1.] Sampling information in Korean coastal waters
    Sampling information in Korean coastal waters
  • [Fig. 1.] Light microscopy (LM) microphotographs. (a-d) Cocconeiopsis wrightii, (e) Nitzschia improvisa, (f-h) Nitzschia valdestriata, and (i-l) Parlibellus hamulifer. Scale bars, 10 μm.
    Light microscopy (LM) microphotographs. (a-d) Cocconeiopsis wrightii, (e) Nitzschia improvisa, (f-h) Nitzschia valdestriata, and (i-l) Parlibellus hamulifer. Scale bars, 10 μm.
  • [Table 2.] Check list of new recorded diatoms in this study
    Check list of new recorded diatoms in this study
  • [Fig. 4.] Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microphotographs. (a) Nitzschia improvisa, (b-e) Nitzschia valdestriata, (e, f ) Parlibellus hamulifer, (g) Parlibellus rhombicus, (h) Navicula pavilladii, (i) Auricula flabelliformis, (j) Campylodiscus samoensis, and (k) Catenula adhaerens. Scale bars represent: 20 μm (a, i); 1 μm (b, f ); 2 μm (c, d, g, k); 10 μm (e, h).
    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microphotographs. (a) Nitzschia improvisa, (b-e) Nitzschia valdestriata, (e, f ) Parlibellus hamulifer, (g) Parlibellus rhombicus, (h) Navicula pavilladii, (i) Auricula flabelliformis, (j) Campylodiscus samoensis, and (k) Catenula adhaerens. Scale bars represent: 20 μm (a, i); 1 μm (b, f ); 2 μm (c, d, g, k); 10 μm (e, h).
  • [Fig. 2.] Light microscopy (LM) microphotographs. (a, b) Parlibellus rhombicus, (c, d) Navicula pavilladii, (e) Gyrosigma subtile, (f ) Gyrosigma turgida, (g) Pleurosigma decorum, (h) Pleurosigma inflatum, (i) Pleurosigma patagonicum, (j) Pleurosigma speciosum, and (k) Pleurosigma williamsii. Scale bars, 10 μm.
    Light microscopy (LM) microphotographs. (a, b) Parlibellus rhombicus, (c, d) Navicula pavilladii, (e) Gyrosigma subtile, (f ) Gyrosigma turgida, (g) Pleurosigma decorum, (h) Pleurosigma inflatum, (i) Pleurosigma patagonicum, (j) Pleurosigma speciosum, and (k) Pleurosigma williamsii. Scale bars, 10 μm.
  • [Fig. 5.] Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microphotographs. Internal central areas (a, c, e, g, i, k, m), raphe-sternum and helicoglossa (b, e, f, h, j, n) in Gyrosigma and Pleurosigma. (a, b) Gyrosigma subtile, (c, d) Gyrosigma turgida, (e, f ) Pleurosigma decorum, (g, h) Pleurosigma inflatum, (i, j) Pleurosigma patagonicum, (k-l) Pleurosigma speciosum, and (m, n) Pleurosigma williamsii. Scale bars represent 5 μm (a, b, e, h, k, l), 2 μm (c, d, f, g, i, j), and 1 μm (m, n).
    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microphotographs. Internal central areas (a, c, e, g, i, k, m), raphe-sternum and helicoglossa (b, e, f, h, j, n) in Gyrosigma and Pleurosigma. (a, b) Gyrosigma subtile, (c, d) Gyrosigma turgida, (e, f ) Pleurosigma decorum, (g, h) Pleurosigma inflatum, (i, j) Pleurosigma patagonicum, (k-l) Pleurosigma speciosum, and (m, n) Pleurosigma williamsii. Scale bars represent 5 μm (a, b, e, h, k, l), 2 μm (c, d, f, g, i, j), and 1 μm (m, n).
  • [Fig. 3.] Light microscopy (LM) microphotographs. (a) Auricula complexa, (b, c) Auricula flabelliformis, (d, e) Campylodiscus ambiguus, (f, g) Campylodiscus decorus, (h, i) Campylodiscus samoensis, and (j) Catenula adhaerens. Scale bars, 10 μm.
    Light microscopy (LM) microphotographs. (a) Auricula complexa, (b, c) Auricula flabelliformis, (d, e) Campylodiscus ambiguus, (f, g) Campylodiscus decorus, (h, i) Campylodiscus samoensis, and (j) Catenula adhaerens. Scale bars, 10 μm.