Taxonomic Redescription of Loxophyllum perihoplophorum and L. rostratum (Ciliophora: Pleurostomatida) from Korea

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  • ABSTRACT

    Two pleurostomatid ciliates, Loxophyllum perihoplophorum Buddenbrock, 1920 and L. rostratum Cohn, 1866, were collected from the coastal waters of the East Sea, Korea. Their morphologies are described based on live observation and protargol staining, and morphometrics are provided. Loxophyllum perihoplophorum is characterized by the following features: 200-650 μm long in vivo; body slender leaf-shaped, flexible and contractile, with thin and wide extrusome-belted zone; 2 macronuclear nodules (Ma) and 1 micronucleus (Mi); 7-9 contractile vacuoles (CV) positioned along dorsal margin; extrusomes (Ex) evenly distributed along edge of entire body, with about 10 dorsal warts (Wa); 9-11 left (LSK) and 19-22 right somatic kineties (RSK), 4-5 furrows (Fu) on left side. Loxophyllum rostratum is about 100-130 μm long in vivo; body oblate leaf-shaped, contractile, convex ventral side and S-shaped dorsal side, beak-like anterior end; 2 Ma and 1 Mi; 1 CV terminally located; Ex distributed along edge of entire body, with about 9-10 dorsal Wa; 7-8 LSK and 15-19 RSK, ca. 5 Fu on left body side. In addition, sequences of small subunit ribosomal DNA were determined from these two Loxophyllum species and compared with the known Loxophyllum sequences.


  • KEYWORD

    Haptoria , Pleurostomatida , Litonotidae , Loxophyllum perihoplophorum , Loxophyllum rostratum , East Sea , Korea

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  • [Table 1.] Morphological characterization of Loxophyllum perihoplophorum (1st line) and L. rostratum (2nd line) from protargol stained specimens
    Morphological characterization of Loxophyllum perihoplophorum (1st line) and L. rostratum (2nd line) from protargol stained specimens
  • [Fig. 1.] Morphology of Loxophyllum perihoplophorum (A-D) and L. rostratum (E-H) drawn from live and protargol stained specimens. A, E, Left view of a typical live individual; B, F, Nuclei, extrusomes, warts and nematodesmata with protargol staining; C, D, G, H, Ciliary pattern after protargol staining, left (C, G) and right (D, H) sides. DB, dorsal brush kinety; Ex, extrusome; Ma, macronuclear nodule; Mi, micronucleus; PK, perioral kinety; Wa, wart. Scale bars=100 μm (A-D), 50 μm (E-H).
    Morphology of Loxophyllum perihoplophorum (A-D) and L. rostratum (E-H) drawn from live and protargol stained specimens. A, E, Left view of a typical live individual; B, F, Nuclei, extrusomes, warts and nematodesmata with protargol staining; C, D, G, H, Ciliary pattern after protargol staining, left (C, G) and right (D, H) sides. DB, dorsal brush kinety; Ex, extrusome; Ma, macronuclear nodule; Mi, micronucleus; PK, perioral kinety; Wa, wart. Scale bars=100 μm (A-D), 50 μm (E-H).
  • [Fig. 2.] Photographs of Loxophyllum perihoplophorum from live (A-E) and protargol stained (F-L) specimens. A, B, View of live specimen; C, Macronuclear nodules (arrows) and thin and wide extrusome-belted zone (arrowheads); D, Beak-like anterior region (arrow); E, Posterior region, contractile vacuoles (arrowheads) and food vacuole (arrow); F, Appearance of protargol stained specimen; G, Dorsal brush kinety (arrowheads); H, Right view of anterior region, perioral kineties (arrowheads); I, Nuclear apparatus, micronucleus (arrow); J, Warts (arrowheads); K, L, Posterior region, left somatic kineties (arrows in K) and right somatic kineties (arrows in L). Scale bars=100 μm.
    Photographs of Loxophyllum perihoplophorum from live (A-E) and protargol stained (F-L) specimens. A, B, View of live specimen; C, Macronuclear nodules (arrows) and thin and wide extrusome-belted zone (arrowheads); D, Beak-like anterior region (arrow); E, Posterior region, contractile vacuoles (arrowheads) and food vacuole (arrow); F, Appearance of protargol stained specimen; G, Dorsal brush kinety (arrowheads); H, Right view of anterior region, perioral kineties (arrowheads); I, Nuclear apparatus, micronucleus (arrow); J, Warts (arrowheads); K, L, Posterior region, left somatic kineties (arrows in K) and right somatic kineties (arrows in L). Scale bars=100 μm.
  • [Table 2.] Comparison among populations of Loxophyllum perihoplophorum and L. rostratum
    Comparison among populations of Loxophyllum perihoplophorum and L. rostratum
  • [Fig. 3.] Photographs of Loxophyllum rostratum from live (A-G) and protargol stained (H-L) specimens. A, Left view of live specimen; B, Beak-like anterior region (arrow) and winding neck-dorsal portion (arrowhead); C, Warts (arrowheads) in anterior region; D, Macronuclear nodules (arrows); E, Extrusomes (arrows) and warts (arrowheads); F, Furrows (arrows); G, Somatic kineties (arrows); H, Appearance of protargol stained specimen; I, Anterior region, perioral kineties (arrowheads); J, Extrusomes in body (arrows); K, L, Middle region, left somatic kineties (arrows in K) and right somatic kineties (arrows in L). Scale bars=80 μm.
    Photographs of Loxophyllum rostratum from live (A-G) and protargol stained (H-L) specimens. A, Left view of live specimen; B, Beak-like anterior region (arrow) and winding neck-dorsal portion (arrowhead); C, Warts (arrowheads) in anterior region; D, Macronuclear nodules (arrows); E, Extrusomes (arrows) and warts (arrowheads); F, Furrows (arrows); G, Somatic kineties (arrows); H, Appearance of protargol stained specimen; I, Anterior region, perioral kineties (arrowheads); J, Extrusomes in body (arrows); K, L, Middle region, left somatic kineties (arrows in K) and right somatic kineties (arrows in L). Scale bars=80 μm.