Development of a Reduction Algorithm of GEO Satellite Optical Observation Data for Optical Wide Field Patrol (OWL)

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  • ABSTRACT

    An algorithm to automatically extract coordinate and time information from optical observation data of geostationary orbit satellites (GEO satellites) or geosynchronous orbit satellites (GOS satellites) is developed. The optical wide-field patrol system is capable of automatic observation using a pre-arranged schedule. Therefore, if this type of automatic analysis algorithm is available, daily unmanned monitoring of GEO satellites can be possible. For data acquisition for development, the COMS1 satellite was observed with 1-s exposure time and 1-m interval. The images were grouped and processed in terms of “action”, and each action was composed of six or nine successive images. First, a reference image with the best quality in one action was selected. Next, the rest of the images in the action were geometrically transformed to fit in the horizontal coordinate system (expressed in azimuthal angle and elevation) of the reference image. Then, these images were median-combined to retain only the possible non-moving GEO candidates. By reverting the coordinate transformation of the positions of these GEO satellite candidates, the final coordinates could be calculated.


  • KEYWORD

    GEO satellite , data reduction , algorithm , optical , wide field

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  • [Table 1.] OWL test-bed specifications.
    OWL test-bed specifications.
  • [Table 2.] Summary of test observation night results.
    Summary of test observation night results.
  • [Fig. 1.] (Left) Typical raw image, which is inverted black and white, and the (right) magnified GEO objects. The circled objects are GEO candidates. The rightmost (pointed by an arrow) object is the COMS satellite. The other two objects are Japanese GEO satellites detected in the same frame.
    (Left) Typical raw image, which is inverted black and white, and the (right) magnified GEO objects. The circled objects are GEO candidates. The rightmost (pointed by an arrow) object is the COMS satellite. The other two objects are Japanese GEO satellites detected in the same frame.
  • [Fig. 2.] (Left) Part of a raw image and (right) its “object” check image inverted black and white. The circled objects are GEO candidates. The rightmost (pointed by an arrow) object is the COMS satellite. The other two objects are Japanese GEO satellites detected in the same frame.
    (Left) Part of a raw image and (right) its “object” check image inverted black and white. The circled objects are GEO candidates. The rightmost (pointed by an arrow) object is the COMS satellite. The other two objects are Japanese GEO satellites detected in the same frame.
  • [Fig. 3.] Explanation of geometrical transformation. The starting points of the arrows are distributed at equal distances from one another to the closest points along both the horizontal and vertical directions over the whole image area. The arrows point to the directions of the geometrical transformation to match with the coordinate system of the reference image.
    Explanation of geometrical transformation. The starting points of the arrows are distributed at equal distances from one another to the closest points along both the horizontal and vertical directions over the whole image area. The arrows point to the directions of the geometrical transformation to match with the coordinate system of the reference image.
  • [Fig. 4.] (Left) Geometrically transformed image and (right) the combined image. The background stars are removed, and only the GEO candidates are visible in the combined image.
    (Left) Geometrically transformed image and (right) the combined image. The background stars are removed, and only the GEO candidates are visible in the combined image.
  • [Table 3.] Number of detection times―coordinate data points.
    Number of detection times―coordinate data points.
  • [Fig. 5.] Time series plot of the J2000 right ascension and declination of detected GEO objects observed on August 28, 2014.
    Time series plot of the J2000 right ascension and declination of detected GEO objects observed on August 28, 2014.
  • [Fig. 6.] Time series plot of the J2000 right ascension and declination of detected GEO objects observed on August30, 2014.
    Time series plot of the J2000 right ascension and declination of detected GEO objects observed on August30, 2014.
  • [Fig. 7.] Time series plot of the J2000 right ascension and declination of detected GEO objects observed on August 31, 2014.
    Time series plot of the J2000 right ascension and declination of detected GEO objects observed on August 31, 2014.
  • [Fig. 8.] Time series plot of the J2000 right ascension and declination of detected GEO objects observed on September 1, 2014.
    Time series plot of the J2000 right ascension and declination of detected GEO objects observed on September 1, 2014.
  • [Fig. 9.] Time series plot of the J2000 right ascension and declination of detected GEO objects observed on November 10, 2014
    Time series plot of the J2000 right ascension and declination of detected GEO objects observed on November 10, 2014