Professional Inclination of Library and Information Science (LIS) Students of India: A Study of Socioeconomic Background and Career Choice Factors
- Author: Singh KP, Chander Harish
- Organization: Singh KP; Chander Harish
- Publish: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF KNOWLEDGE CONTENT DEVELOPMENT and TECHNOLOGY Volume 3, Issue2, p5~27, 30 Dec 2013
The purpose of the study is to assess the professional inclination, academic and social background, family status and their occupation, gender distribution, choice of work, and their perceptions of aspirant LIS students. The study examined the various career choice factors and sources of motivation that influence the students of LIS profession. The data has been collected from the 251 LIS students' enrolled five prominent universities of North India. The results indicate that majority of female students join the LIS profession because of employment opportunities. Most of the respondents are from rural areas, hails to middle class families and their educational background in Arts/Humanities and Social Science subjects. Majority of the respondents choose the LIS profession as primary career because for the better employment possibilities. The study recommends the public awareness about the LIS profession in India.
Career Choices , LIS Profession , Librarianship , Professional Inclination , Academic Background , Family Status , Demographic , Motivational Factors
The choice of students to adopt any profession expected to make many decision regarding their career either by influences or self interest which determine future plans. Technological advances, socioeconomic issues and rapid changing information environment and other factors could affect new generation of librarians’ mind set. The present study sheds insights with focus on career choice of LIS students, their professional orientation, subject background, and an attempt to know the aspirations and expectations, the information, factors which influences their career perceptions. The results of the survey present LIS students’ motivations for choosing library career, as well as their self interest, and preferences for various sub fields. Very few attempts have been done in the concerned area which examined reasons why LIS students opt the career paths they do. This research work limited those students studying in the field of library and information science of selected five universities of India. Presently LIS education in India is a vibrant profession and the various categories of courses such as BLIS, MLIS, MLIS (Integrated), M.Phil and Ph.D are available in more than 181 Departments/ Colleges in India. About 5000 students are enrolled every year in the various courses available in Indian universities (Singh, 2012).
Garry and Garry (1977) evaluated the socio-economic and ideological factors influencing both the primary vocational choice (librarianship) and the secondary choice of a specialty within the parent discipline (academic or public librarianship), which is largely based on data supplied by the Faculty of library science, University of Toronto. Recruitment is at a young age; over 1/2 the entrants to the faculty of library science are in the 21-24 age categories. Khanna (1982) in his survey assessed the development process leading to make librarianship as career and there was a strong correlation between motivational factors and work efficiency. Chopra (1984) stated that higher percentage of professionals were satisfied with their positions, job status and working conditions. Singh (1992) in his study presented a detail view of socioeconomic background of the professionals working in university libraries of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Bello (1998) analysis revealed that the profession is male dominated. With the median age at 28 years, the age structure of the professional workforce is certain to change in the future. Kaur (2007) discussed various factors which motivate them to join this profession, their professional interests, attitude, and job satisfaction level with the LIS profession. Issa and Nwalo (2008) carried out a survey which highlights that 38.4% who chose the course were influenced mostly by previous library work experience, male LIS students (50.3%) than females (49.7%), indicating its equal popularity among both sexes. That 46.9% of them were in the 22-26 age bracket showed that the younger undergraduates constitute the majority. Taylor et al (2010) surveyed to know the motivations for choosing a library career of MLIS students, and results show that an overwhelming majority of current MLIS students (76%) indicated that job function was the primary motivator in their decision to pursue librarianship as a career. Alansari (2011) investigated the factors affecting career choice, job satisfaction, and perceptions of the public image of librarians of 117 professional librarians working in academic, public, and special libraries in Kuwait. Respondents reported that they were moderately satisfied with their current job. Singh (2012) critically analyse the various aspects of LIS profession and education by giving account of 181 departments/institutes/colleges which are involved in imparting LIS education from Bachelors to Doctorate degree. Udoudoh (2012) examined that how and why personality traits influence information strategies and its impact on an individual’s career choice. Arora (2013) attempted to provide picture of socioeconomic status of students aspiring to become library professionals and sources of motivation to choose librarianship as career.
The study looks into the following specific objectives: To know the academic background of LIS students enrolled in the Indian universities;To know their sources and factors of motivation/inspiration for choosing librarianship as a career;To find out about their family background, education of their parents, siblings and their parental profession, income and so on;To assess their professional inclination of Indian LIS students;To know the age and gender-wise distribution of LIS students;To know why and how they join the library profession.
The study based on 251 students of five universities randomly selected from the entry level of LIS programme from the listed Indian Universities: University of Delhi, Delhi (DU)Punjabi University, Patiala (PUP)Panjab University , Chandigarh (PUC)Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra (KUK)Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak (MDU)
B.LISc and M.LISc students of the academic session (2012-13) enrolled in the above universities have been covered.
Survey method is very useful to investigate conditions and problems in realistic settings and gather accurate and adequate information to make sound assessment. Therefore, the study based on survey method. For this purpose a structured questionnaire was designed in order to collect the data pertaining to this study. Data was collected personally from the students by the researchers visiting several times during the period of academic session 2012-2013, completed in calendar year (July 2013 - June 2013). To depict the clear picture on the topic in Indian librarianship, students were selected from these universities in order to have a rational proportion of population of the LIS students from the rural, urban and religious background. As the University of Delhi, Delhi and Panjab University, Chandigrah referents LIS students belongs to urban and educated class, whereas the students in the Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra and Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak (Haryana) came from the rural and middle class, while Punjabi University, Patiala (Punjab) represents the students based on the religious and village background. The collected data has been thoroughly segregated and presented into the major heads- Demographics, Socioeconomic status, Academic and occupational background, Sources and factors of motivation and career choice for the purpose of discussion of results.
Collected material of the study has been presented into four sections,
Section one: Demographic Analysis; Section two: Academic and Occupational Background of Family; Section three: Socio Economic Status and Section four: Sources and factors of motivation and career choice, supported with the following tables with their analysis, the diagram/charts willingly not prepared keeping the length of the article.
The researcher distributed 316 questionnaires to the BLIS/MLIS students and having a response rate 79% have been received back. The Table 1 shows that the response rate highest (83%) from DU and lowest from KUK (72%).
In order to find out the gender ratio of the Library and Information Science enrolled students, the given Table 2 shows the data.
The break up of gender of respondents (Table 2) shows the predominance of female students (60.6%) over male students (39.4%). Universities wise analysis also highlight that all the universities i.e. DU (64.9%), PUP (54%), PUC (77.6%), and MDU (61.2%) have the higher number of female students except KUK (43.9%). The PUC had low representation of (22.4%) and the KUK had comparatively larger representation (56.5%) of male students.
Data related to age group has been presented in the given table as universities wise.
The above Table (3) exhibits that the huge proportion of respondents (88.8%) joined this professional course between the age group of 20-25, followed by only (10.8%) respondents who enter in the profession at the age of 26-30. Universities wise analysis also shows that the respondents from all the universities joined this course at younger age (20-25). The average means of join this course i.e. 24.5 years.
Traditionally India is a multicultural and multi religion based country. In order to determine the religious based percentage affiliations of the LIS students, the given table pictures the facts.
The above Table (4) indicates that overwhelming majority of respondents (72.1%) belong to Hindu religion, followed by the Sikhism (20.7%) and Islam (4%). From the individual university point of view Panjab University (PUC) represents having the respondents from all the religions from Hindu (71.4%), Sikhism (14.3%), Buddhism (10.2%) and Islam and Christian 2% respectively. The Delhi University (DU) has its respondents from all the religions i.e. Hindu (82.5%), Islam (14%), Sikhism and Christian 1.8% respectively except Buddhism. The majority of respondents of Punjabi University (PUP) belong to Sikhism (82%) which is followed by Hindu religion (18%). All the respondents of MDU belong to Hindu religion (98%) whereas negligible respondents (2%) are from Islam. The majority of the respondents of KUK are from Hindu religion (91.3%) and the slight proportion 6.5% and 2.2% students belong to Sikhism and Buddhism.
In a developing country like India rural - urban background of individuals is an important factor in their educational attainments and occupational choices. The Table 5 depicts the regional family background of the students.
From the above Table (5) it is observed that the respondents with rural background (57.8%) are higher as compared to the urban background (42.2%). The analysis of data Table 5 reveal that respondents who belong to rural areas predominate in three universities such as PUP (86%), KUK (73.9%) and MDU (69.4%), whereas the large segments of respondents i.e. DU (71.9%) and PUC (63.3%) are from urban regions.
Family background of the respondents has been studied in terms of educational and occupational status of the parents of respondents. Analysis of these aspects helps to know the educational and occupational position of their parents and their effect on the choice of LIS career by the respondents.
The educational background of the fathers of respondents in the given Table (6) reveals that high rate of metric/secondary (45%) level among them. Another group of father’s education are graduation (18.3%), and (15.5%) father’s of the respondents had not gone beyond the higher secondary level. While 10.8% are illiterate, 10% are post graduate and the number of doctorate is negligible (0.4%).
University wise analysis also shows that highest percentage of illiteracy rate among the fathers of the respondents of KUK (28.3%) and lowest in PUC (2%). The highest rate of graduate fathers of the respondents of DU (38.6%) and post graduates of PUC (30.6%). Except DU the education level of majority of fathers of the respondents of all other universities confined up to metric/secondary level.
The Table 6.1 indicates about the educational qualifications of mothers of the respondents.
The above Table (6.1) highlights that higher numbers (41.4%) of mothers of the respondents are illiterate, followed by the metric/secondary (35.5%) and only 11.2% studied up to higher secondary level. The higher illiteracy rate of mothers of the respondents is from KUK (69.6%) and MDU (53.1%) respectively and lowest in DU (22.8%). In category higher secondary education of mothers of the respondents DU (21.2%) exceeding the other universities and PUC in graduation (18.4%) and post graduation (14.3%).
The Table 7 represents the universities wise analysis of the occupations of the fathers of the respondents.
The above given Table (7) shows that majority of the fathers of the respondents are farmer (29.5%), followed by the slight difference in category of government job (29.1%), businessmen (18.3%) and laborer (17.5%) respectively. University wise analysis indicates that highest percentage of the respondents of PUP (54%) and KUK (43.5%) had their father in farming. The category of government employee fathers of the respondents of PUC (49%) and DU (36.8%) are highest than other universities. Fathers’ occupation of respondents of DU and PUC as businessmen also exceeding with 38.6% and 22.4% respectively as compared to other universities.
The Table 8 presents the distribution of qualification (Graduation) of the respondents.
Data given in Table 8 demonstrates that the majority of the respondents (84.5%) enter into the profession with their graduation degree of B.A. Few respondents have the degree such as B.Sc. (8.4%), B.Com (4.4%) and BCA (1.6%) at their graduate level. Only 1.2% respondents completed their graduation with BBA, LLB and B.Tech. From the individual university point of view 61.4% respondents of the DU have their graduation with Degree of B.A. followed by 26.3% students have their graduate degree in B.Sc. and remaining 12.3% students have B.Com, BCA and BBA degrees. The students of PUC have their graduation 83.7% with B.A, and remaining 12.3% with B.Sc., B.Com, B.Tech and BCA. The universities PUP (94%), KUK (97.8%) and MDU (89.8%) have the majority of the students who have their graduation with degree of B.A.
The students are also enquired about their specialization during the graduation and results are presented in Table 8.1.
Data given in Table 8.1 shows that overwhelming majority of the respondents (79.3%) possesses their graduate degree in arts and humanities. The remaining respondents possess their degrees in social sciences (10.8%) and science and technology (10%). Majority of respondents of all the universities have their degrees in arts and humanities. Only DU has the highest number graduate respondents in science and technology (28.1%) and social sciences (22.8%) as compared to other universities. This is because the DU has the policy to admit the LIS students in equal ratio as in other subjects of Social Sciences and Humanities.
Income of the family is another important factor to determine his/her socioeconomic background. It is the source of livelihood of any person in the society. The details regarding annual family income of the respondents given in Table 9.
The above Table (9) shows the annual income of the family of the respondents, according to which highest percentage of them (37.5%) fall in the income group of 51,000 to 1 Lac. Others 24.7% and 14.7% are in the income group of 1.1 to 2 Lac and below 50,000 respectively. Few families of the respondents have their annual income 3.1 to 4 Lac (6.8%) and more than 4 Lac (4.4%). University wise analysis also indicates that majority of the respondents’ families in all the universities i.e. DU (31.6%), PUP (46%), KUK (43.5%) and MDU (42.9%) have their annual income between fifty one thousands to one Lac. Whereas respondents of PUC have equal numbers of families (24.5%) having annual income between the categories of fifty one thousands to one Lac and 1.1 Lac to 2 Lac respectively.
Status of the family is another important factor to know the socioeconomic background of the students. The Table 10 presents university wise analysis related to the family status of respondents.
From the above Table (10), it is significant to note that majority of respondents (69.3%) are mainly from middle class families and representation of students who belong to lower middle class and upper middle class families are confined to 17.9% and 8.8% respectively. But the number of economically poor (4%) is just negligible. Universities wise analysis of data (Table 10) reveals the predominance of middle class i.e. near about 70% respondents of all the universities hails from middle class families. The proportion of respondents who belongs to lower middle class families is higher in MDU (22.4%), PUP (22%) and KUK (21.7%) as compared to DU (15.8%) and PUC (8.2%).
It is interesting to know the sources of motivation through which students are encouraged to librarianship. The Table 11 explains their sources of motivation of respondents.
Data presented in Table 11 reveals about 25.1% respondents join this profession with the motivation of their friends, whereas 23.5% had themselves decided choose career in librarianship.18.3% respondents who motivated through their siblings and 12.7% guided by their parents and 8% motivated by the relatives to join the LIS profession. The role of librarian as source of motivation was confined 4% of respondents. Among motivational sources friends ranked first as reported by 25.1% respondents. University wise analysis also highlights that highest number of respondents of KUK (43.5%) and DU (29.8%) joined the LIS profession by their self decision as compared to others.
The Tables 12 explores the choices of the respondents to choose the specific university/ department.
Data presented in Table 12 indicates that majority of the respondents (46.6%) choose the specific university/department due to reputation of the university, which is followed by the other categories such as good faculty (24.7%), near to home (19.5%) and good infrastructure (9.2%). University wise analysis shows that high proportion of respondents of MDU (42.9%) joined the university/department due to good faculty which is followed by the other category near to home (26.5%). The majority of the respondents of DU (68.4%) express their reason to join the department/ university due to its reputation, followed by good faculty (19.3%) and near to home (10.5%). The 44% students of the PUP choose this university/ department due to its reputation, followed by good faculty (28%) and near to home (24%). The majority of respondents of PUC (61.2%) choose this university because of its reputation and remaining 38.8% have the other reasons such as good faculty, infrastructure and near to home.
In order to know that what the important factors are which motivate the respondents to choose librarianship as career. Table 13 presents overview about motivational factors.
The above Table (13) shows most important factor that influenced the decision of respondents of all the universities to join the profession is employment opportunities (52.6%), followed by love for books and reading (14.7%) and better work environment (12%). Two other factors i.e. to serve the community (6.8%) and better than school teaching (6%) reflect the considerations of respondents behind join this profession. 5.6% respondents come to this profession by chance and negligible percentage (2.8%) opine that they join this profession because there was no other alternative for them. After the employment opportunities the other major factors of all respondents of the universities i.e. DU (12.3%), PUP (14%), KUK (19.6%) and MDU (22.4%) for join the LIS profession is their love for books and reading, whereas the 12.2% students of PUC advocate that this profession is better than school teaching.
It is examined that any of the family member of respondents already in LIS profession or not. The results are given in Table 14.
The Table 14 reveals that only 6% respondents found that family member already in LIS profession. An overwhelming majority (94%) of respondents join this profession whom families are in different professions or occupations. Among the universities PUC (10.5%) has high percentage of the respondents whose family member in LIS profession.
It is attempted for the purpose of examining respondents’ choice of librarianship as primary career or secondary, given in Table 15.
Data in above Table 15 highlights that majority of respondents (69.3%) choose the librarianship as their primary career, whereas 30.7% respondents had thought of making career in other occupation before joining librarianship. The high percentages reported choose the librarianship as primary career by the respondents of all universities except DU. Majority of respondents of DU (56.1%) choose the librarianship as secondary career, which is followed by the students of PUC (32.7%), KUK (21.7%), MDU (20.4%) and PUP (18%).
The data presented in Table 16, it is enquired to know the perceptions of the students towards the LIS course.
Table 16 exhibits that majority of the respondents (53%) find the LIS course academically sound, 35.9% respondents advocate that it is intellectual challenging subject and only 11.2% consider it is just like a training. Majority of the respondents of DU (47.4%) find that it is academically sound course, which is followed by another major category of the respondents (45.6%) who find it as intellectual challenging course. The students of all the universities i.e. PUP (76%), PUC (55.1%) and MDU (55.1%) consider the course academically sound except KUK. Respondents of KUK (50%) have the highest percentage who found this course intellectual challenging, which is followed by the other category academically sound (30.6%) and just a training (19.6%).
The respondents asked about choosing librarianship as profession shown in Table 17.
An overwhelming majority of the respondents (88%) agree that librarianship is right choice for them (Table 17). A little proportion of respondents (10.4%) stated that they don’t know about their choice either right or wrong. A negligible percentage (1.6%) of respondents considers that LIS profession is not right choice for them. University wise analysis shows that the respondents of PUC (18.4%), PUP (12%), and DU (10.5%) reported that they don’t know their decision to choose librarianship as career is right choice for them or not. Whereas majority of students of all the universities consider that they choose the right career for them.
In order to know the choice of respondents to work in library, an analysis of different types of libraries with their choices has been made, which is shown in Table 18.
Table 18 depicts that majority of them (36.3%) want to work in university library, which is followed by 23.5% respondents who are ready to work in any library and 20.3% gave their choice with college library. Other (20%) respondents express their views to work in school library, public library, engineering library, agriculture library and medical library. The numbers of respondents of DU (31.6%) are higher than other universities who gave their opinion to work in any type of library, which is followed by PUC (24.5%), MDU (22.4%), KUK (21.7%) and PUP (16%). The 30% students of PUP have their choice to work in college library, followed by students of DU (19.3%), MDU (18.4%), KUK (17.4%) and PUC (16.3%). Majority of all the students i.e. MDU (44.9%), PUP (40%), PUC (36.7%), KUK (30.4%) and DU (29.8%) are interested to do the work in university libraries.
Students’ inclination to another profession with monetary gains and better career prospects examined and presented in Table 19.
In analyzing respondents’ desire to switch over from the library profession to another profession with monetary gains and better career prospects (Table 19), we found that majority stated their response with ‘yes’ (61.4%) and 38.6% expressed that they would not like to switch over another profession. A high proportion of respondents of PUP (52%) as compared to other universities i.e. PUC (40.8%), MDU (40.8%) and DU (38.6%) reveal that they would not like to move over another profession even if more monetary gains are available. The highest response of students who wish to shift another profession with some monetary gains is from KUK (80.4%) and lowest from the respondents of PUP (48%).
Table 20 presents the satisfaction level of respondents with library and information science profession.
The data given in above Table (20) reveal that overwhelming majority (78.1%) of respondents, are satisfied with LIS profession. Remaining 19.9% respondents are highly satisfied and negligible percentage (2%) reported that they are not satisfied by joining the librarianship. Large numbers of respondents of KUK (30.4%) and PUP (28%) universities are highly satisfied by joining this profession, whereas lowest numbers are in DU (5.3%).
The following findings has been drown from the above analysis, and recorded categories wise:
The study finds that majority of the respondents (88.8%) joined the Library and Information Science profession between the age group of 20-25 as compared to very few others (10.8%) who enter in the age of 26-30.The study revealed that out of the total population 251; female ratio of the LIS students is more than 60%. Hence, the study finds that LIS profession is dominant by the females.In terms of religious background of respondents, the study finds that majority of them (72.1%) are Hindu, as compared to other religions i.e. Sikhism (20.7%), Islam (4%) and Buddhism (2.4%). The finding is quite obvious that however India is secular country but Hindu religion is predominant religion.The study reveals that 84.5% respondents who join the LIS profession are Graduate with B.A. as compared to few others B.Sc., B.Com, and BCA and B.Tech students. Most of them (53%) did their graduation with second division and 43.8% completed with first division.Maximum numbers of respondents (79.3%) possesses their graduate degree in arts and humanities as compared to social science (10.8%) and science and technology (10%). Hence, the study finds that majority of students with educational background in arts and humanities subjects join the librarianship.
The results of the study shows that majority of respondents’ families have rural background (57.8%) as compared to the urban areas (42.2%). Hence, the study finds that majority of students are from rural areas who join the LIS profession.Significantly it is found that majority of respondents (69.3%) who join the librarianship are belong to middle class families as compared to other categories i.e. lower middle class (17.9%), upper middle class (8.8%). Hence, the study finds that most of the students join the LIS profession are from middle class families.About the educational background of parents of respondents the study explore that majority of fathers (45%) studied up to metric/secondary level. About education of mothers high proportion (41.4%) mothers are illiterate as compared to other group (35.5%) who got the education up to metric/secondary.The study reveals that occupation of majority of fathers of the respondents is farming (29.5%), as compared to other major categories i.e. government job (29.1%) and businessmen (18.3%). An overwhelming majority of mothers of respondents are house wife (93.6%).The study indicates that majority of the respondents’ families (37.5%) have their annual income between the categories, Fifty one thousands to one Lac from all the sources.
The study reveals that maximum number of respondents (25.1%) motivated through their friends than siblings, parents, relatives, teachers and librarians. Whereas 23.5% respondents self decided to join the librarianship.It is observed that most important factor that influenced the decision of respondents to join the profession is employment opportunities (52.6%), followed by love for books and reading (14.7%) and better work environment (12%). Hence, the study finds that majority of the respondents shows their intent to join this profession because of better job prospects.The study indicates that majority of the respondents (46.6%) choose the specific university/department due to its reputation of the university, followed by good faculty (24.7%) and near to home (19.5%).
It is observed that majority of respondents (69.3%) choose the librarianship as their primary career, whereas 30.7% respondents had thought of making career in other occupation before joining librarianship. Hence, the study finds that majority of the students have their primary choice to pursue their career in librarianship.In order to know the perceptions of the students towards the LIS course, the study finds that majority of the respondents (53%) observe that LIS course is academically sound followed by other categories intellectual challenging (35.9%) and training (11.2%).In order to know the choice of respondents to work in library, it is observed that majority of them (36.3%) want to work in university library, followed by 23.5% respondents who are ready to work in any library and 20.3% gave their choice with college library.In order to know the response on switching over to another profession with monetary gains and better career prospects, the study finds that majority of respondents (61.4%) stated their response with ‘yes’ and 38.6% respondents would not like to shift to another profession even if they benefited by the monetary gains.Only 6% respondents join the librarianship that family members are already in librarianship. An overwhelming majority (94%) of respondents join this profession whom families are in different professions or occupations.The study finds that overwhelming majority (78.1%) of respondents is satisfied by join the library and information science as profession.
The following suggestions have been drawn on the basis of responses received from the respondents: There is a need to create public awareness about the LIS profession to attract the best brains in the country to join the LIS profession who can meet the challenges of 21st century in dealing with the problems in Indian librarianship.University should maintain a quality curriculum that continues to prepare students to build up their skills in a most effective and efficient manner.Faculty should not only emphasize on reading material but also give the chance to the students to work with databases, virtual reference services, and library software, Web 2.0 applications for libraries, and other technologies.Accomplished library and information professionals - both academics and practitioners should take up responsibilities in organizing and sponsoring mass media publicity programmes on the LIS profession.In this study, the majority of students are having interest for the job after completing the course, so placement facility is essential depending on their knowledge in the concerned field.
The choice of career in particular profession is an important aspect of one’s life pattern. The present study carried out to know the choice, perceptions, professional interests, social and economically background, academic attainments of the aspirant LIS professionals, targeting the population from the five universities where the LIS students came from various socio economic backgrounds such as urban (cities and towns), rural (villages), religious and cultural (Hindu, Muslims, etc), literate and semiliterate, middle and lower class (based on their parents income). Through this study researchers try to attempt to project career and choice of librarianship in India based on various socio-economic dimensions. However, the study to a certain extent depicts the picture of librarianship in India as a career choice, but suggests that for generalizing the findings in broader prospects similar studies should be undertaken by covering the population from more universities covering the population from north, south and east.
[Table 1.] Sample of Distributed Questionnaires
[Table 2.] Gender wise Distribution
[Table 3.] Age Description - University wise
[Table 4.] Religion of Respondents - University wise
[Table 5.] Family Background - University wise
[Table 6.] Father’s Education - University wise
[Table 6.1.] Mother’s Education - University wise
[Table 7.] Father’s Occupation - University wise
[Table 8.] Qualification (Graduation) of the Respondents - University wise
[Table 8.1.] Specialization in Graduation - University wise
[Table 9.] Annual Income of their Family - University wise
[Table 10.] Family Status - University wise
[Table 11.] Source of Motivation for the Choice of Librarianship - University wise
[Table 12.] Choice of the specific University/Department - University wise
[Table 13.] Motivational Factors for the choice of librarianship - University wise
[Table 14.] Any of your Family member already in LIS Profession
[Table 15.] LIS as Primary Career Choice - University wise
[Table 16.] Perceptions about the LIS Course - University wise
[Table 17.] Is LIS Profession Right Choice for you - University wise
[Table 18.] Choice of work in Library - University wise
[Table 19.] Switching over to another Profession with the Monetary Gains and Career Prospects ？ University wise
[Table 20.] Satisfaction level with LIS Profession - University wise