Comparative observations on Cephaleuros parasiticus and C. virescens (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta) from India

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  • ABSTRACT

    Cephaleuros parasiticus and C. virescens were collected from Kerala and Tamil Nadu, India. Macroscopic and microscopic features were observed and their comparative features were discussed. The lesions of C. parasiticus occur on the upper and lower leaf surfaces although zoosporangia form only on the lower surface. The thalli grow subepidermally and intramatrically, causing necrosis of whole leaf tissue. On the other hand C. virescens thalli develop on the upper surface and zoosporangia form on the upper surface, the thalli grow subcuticularly, and only the host epidermal and palisade cells are necrosed. Syzygium aromaticum and Polyalthia longifolia are new host plants of C. parasiticus and C. virescens, respectively.


  • KEYWORD

    Cephaleuros parasiticus , C. virescens , comparative observations , host plants , Polyalthia , Syzygium

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  • [Fig. 1.] Cephaleuros parasiticus in Syzygium aromaticum. (A) Lesions on leaf surface (left, upper surface; right, lower surface). Notice lesions on both surfaces. (B) Enlarged view of lesions with purple stain on upper surface. (C) Tufts of sporangiophores with zoosporangia forming on lower leaf surface of lesion. (D) Transverse section of lesion showing invasion of filaments (arrows) into tissue of leaf. Necrosis of epidermal cells (ep), palisade cells (ps), and spongy cells (sp). (E) Transverse section of lesion showing development of subepidermal thallus (arrows) of both leaf surfaces. Note necrosis of all leaf tissue, epidermal cells (ep), palisade cells (ps), and spongy cells (sp). (F) Vertical section of lesion showing algal filaments (arrows) expanding subepidermally. (G) Vertical section of lesion showing algal filaments (arrows) expanding among cells of spongy tissue. (H) Transverse section of lesion showing development of thallus (arrows) beneath epidermal cells and formation of immature gametangia (ga) forming beneath cuticle. Necrosis of epidermal cells (ep), palisade cells (ps), and some spongy cells (sp). (I) Sporangiophores (sph) with zoosporangia (sp). Scale bars represent: A, 1 cm; B, 1 mm; C & I, 100 μm; D, E & H, 50 μm; F & G, 10 μm.
    Cephaleuros parasiticus in Syzygium aromaticum. (A) Lesions on leaf surface (left, upper surface; right, lower surface). Notice lesions on both surfaces. (B) Enlarged view of lesions with purple stain on upper surface. (C) Tufts of sporangiophores with zoosporangia forming on lower leaf surface of lesion. (D) Transverse section of lesion showing invasion of filaments (arrows) into tissue of leaf. Necrosis of epidermal cells (ep), palisade cells (ps), and spongy cells (sp). (E) Transverse section of lesion showing development of subepidermal thallus (arrows) of both leaf surfaces. Note necrosis of all leaf tissue, epidermal cells (ep), palisade cells (ps), and spongy cells (sp). (F) Vertical section of lesion showing algal filaments (arrows) expanding subepidermally. (G) Vertical section of lesion showing algal filaments (arrows) expanding among cells of spongy tissue. (H) Transverse section of lesion showing development of thallus (arrows) beneath epidermal cells and formation of immature gametangia (ga) forming beneath cuticle. Necrosis of epidermal cells (ep), palisade cells (ps), and some spongy cells (sp). (I) Sporangiophores (sph) with zoosporangia (sp). Scale bars represent: A, 1 cm; B, 1 mm; C & I, 100 μm; D, E & H, 50 μm; F & G, 10 μm.
  • [Fig. 2.] Cephaleuros virescens in Polyalthia longifolia. (A) Thalli with purple stain on upper surface of young leaf. (B) Purple stain not visible on upper surface of old leaf. (C) Enlarged view of a circular disk. (D) Granules of gametangia aggregating. (E) Bush of sporangiophores with zoosporangia formed on thallus. (F) Transverse section of leaf showing development of thallus (arrow) beneath cuticle (cu) of upper leaf surface. Notice necrosis of epidermal cells (ep) and palisade cells (ps). (G) Algal filaments creeping between cuticle (cu) and epidermal cells (ep) of leaf. (H) Surface view of thallus showing pseudoparenchymatous ramuli with no gaps and crenate margin. (I) Surface view of gametangia produced from creeping filamentous cells. (J) Sporangiophore (sph), head cell (hc), suffultory cell (sc), and zoosporangium (sp). Scale bars represent: A & B, 1 cm; C, 1 mm; D & E, 100 μm; F & H-J, 50 μm; G, 10 μm.
    Cephaleuros virescens in Polyalthia longifolia. (A) Thalli with purple stain on upper surface of young leaf. (B) Purple stain not visible on upper surface of old leaf. (C) Enlarged view of a circular disk. (D) Granules of gametangia aggregating. (E) Bush of sporangiophores with zoosporangia formed on thallus. (F) Transverse section of leaf showing development of thallus (arrow) beneath cuticle (cu) of upper leaf surface. Notice necrosis of epidermal cells (ep) and palisade cells (ps). (G) Algal filaments creeping between cuticle (cu) and epidermal cells (ep) of leaf. (H) Surface view of thallus showing pseudoparenchymatous ramuli with no gaps and crenate margin. (I) Surface view of gametangia produced from creeping filamentous cells. (J) Sporangiophore (sph), head cell (hc), suffultory cell (sc), and zoosporangium (sp). Scale bars represent: A & B, 1 cm; C, 1 mm; D & E, 100 μm; F & H-J, 50 μm; G, 10 μm.
  • [Table 1.] Comparative features of Cephaleuros parasiticus and C. virescens
    Comparative features of Cephaleuros parasiticus and C. virescens