Sleep-Promoting Effect of Ecklonia cava: Ethanol Extract Promotes Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep in C57BL/6N Mice

  • cc icon

    We investigated the effects of Ecklonia cava ethanol extract (ECE) on sleep architecture and sleep profiles. ECE was orally administered at a dose of 100, 250, or 500 mg/kg to C57BL/6N mice and its effects were measured by recording electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram. Administration of ECE (250 and 500 mg/kg) significantly induced non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) without affecting rapid eye movement sleep. The increase in NREMS by ECE (500 mg/kg) was significant (P < 0.05) during the first 2 h after administration. In addition, ECE had no effect on EEG power density (an indicator of sleep quality) in NREMS. These results suggest that ECE induces NREMS in a manner similar to physiological sleep.


    Ecklonia cava , Electroencephalogram , Electromyogram , Non-rapid eye movement sleep , Delta power

  • 1. Ahn G, Hwang I, Park E, Kim J, Jeon YJ, Lee J, Park JW, Jee Y 2008 Immunomodulatory effects of an enzymatic extract from Ecklonia cava on murine splenocytes [Mar Biotechnol] Vol.10 P.278-289 google
  • 2. Ahn G, Park E, Lee WW, Hyun JW, Lee KW, Shin T, Jeon YJ, Jee Y 2011 Enzymatic extract from Ecklonia cava induces the activation of lymphocytes by IL-2 production through the classical NF-κB pathway [Mar Biotechnol] Vol.13 P.66-73 google
  • 3. Bastien CH, LeBlanc M, Carrier J, Morin CM 2003 Sleep EEG power spectra, insomnia, and chronic use of benzodiazepines [Sleep] Vol.26 P.313-317 google
  • 4. Borja NL, Daniel KL 2006 Ramelteon for the treatment of insomnia [Clin Ther] Vol.28 P.1540-1555 google
  • 5. Brand S, Kirov R 2011 Sleep and its importance in adolescence and in common adolescent somatic and psychiatric conditions [Int J Gen Med] Vol.4 P.425-442 google
  • 6. Cho S, Han D, Kim SB, Yoon M, Yang H, Jin YH, Jo J, Yong H, Lee SH, Jeon YJ, Shimizu M 2012 Depressive effects on the central nervous system and underlying mechanism of the enzymatic extract and its phlorotannin-rich fraction from Ecklonia cava edible brown seaweed [Biosci Biotechnol Biochem] Vol.76 P.163-168 google
  • 7. Cho S, Yang H, Jeon YJ, Lee CJ, Jin YH, Baek NI, Kim D, Kang SM, Yoon M, Yong H, Shimizu M, Han D 2012 Phlorotannins of the edible brown seaweed Ecklonia cava Kjellman induce sleep via positive allosteric modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A-benzodiazepine receptor: a novel neurological activity of seaweed polyphenols [Food Chem] Vol.132 P.1133-1142 google
  • 8. Cochran WT, Cooley JW, Favin DL, Helms HD, Kaenel RA, Lang WW, Maling GC Jr, Nelson DE, Rader CM, Welch PD 1967 What is the fast Fourier transform? [Proc IEEE Inst Electr Electron Eng] Vol.55 P.1664-1674 google
  • 9. Coenen AM, van Luijtelaar EL 1991 Pharmacological dissociation of EEG and behavior: a basic problem in sleep-wake classification [Sleep] Vol.14 P.464-465 google
  • 10. Doghramji K 2006 The epidemiology and diagnosis of insomnia [Am J Manag Care] Vol.12 P.S214-S220 google
  • 11. Erman MK 2008 New perspectives in the diagnosis and management of insomnia [CNS Spectr] Vol.13 P.3 google
  • 12. Heo SJ, Park EJ, Lee KW, Jeon YJ 2005 Antioxidant activities of enzymatic extracts from brown seaweeds [Bioresource Technol] Vol.96 P.1613-1623 google
  • 13. Huber R, Deboer T, Tobler I 2000 Effects of sleep deprivation on sleep and sleep EEG in three mouse strains: empirical data and simulations [Brain Res] Vol.857 P.8-19 google
  • 14. Imeri L, Opp MR 2009 How (and why) the immune system makes us sleep [Nat Rev Neurosci] Vol.10 P.199-210 google
  • 15. Ishida T, Obara Y, Kamei C 2009 Effects of some antipsychotics and a benzodiazepine hypnotic on the sleep-wake pattern in an animal model of schizophrenia [J Pharmacol Sci] Vol.111 P.44-52 google
  • 16. Kim MM, Kim SK 2010 Effect of phloroglucinol on oxidative stress and inflammation [Food Chem Toxicol] Vol.48 P.2925-2933 google
  • 17. Kim TH, Bae JS 2010 Ecklonia cava extracts inhibit lipopolysaccharide induced inflammatory responses in human endothelial cells [Food Chem Toxicol] Vol.48 P.1682-1687 google
  • 18. Kohtoh S, Taguchi Y, Matsumoto N, Wada M, Huang ZL, Urade Y 2008 Algorithm for sleep scoring in experimental animals based on fast Fourier transform power spectrum analysis of the electroencephalogram [Sleep Biol Rhythms] Vol.6 P.163-171 google
  • 19. Kong CS, Kim JA, Yoon NY, Kim SK 2009 Induction of apoptosis by phloroglucinol derivative from Ecklonia cava in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells [Food Chem Toxicol] Vol.47 P.1653-1658