Echinoderm Fauna of Chuuk, The Federated States of Micronesia

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  • ABSTRACT

    Micronesia is an island nation located north of Papua New Guinea in the Pacific Ocean. A survey was conducted on Chuuk, which is one of the four main islands of Micronesia, from 11-25 Nov 2012. Echinoderms collected at one intertidal area as well as at 16 SCUBA diving points of 10-40 m depths in the subtidal zone were identified based on morphological characteristics. In total, 35 species from 165 individuals were identified: two crinoids, eight asteroids, four ophiuroids, seven echinoids, and 14 holothuroids. Among them, one asteroid, one ophiuroid, one echinoid, and two holothuroids were newly recorded from Micronesia.


  • KEYWORD

    taxonomy , Echinodermata , fauna , Chuuk , Micronesia

  • INTRODUCTION

    The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) consists of four island states in the North Pacific Ocean, including Pohnpei, Chuuk, Yap, and Kosrae, totaling 607 small islands (65 inhabited), extending 2,900 km across the Caroline Islands, from Kosrae in the east to Yap in the west. Chuuk is situated at about 7° 08′ and 7° 41′N latitude and 151° 26′ and 152° 2′E longitude in the western Pacific and includes 12 volcanic high islands, 24 low coral-reef islands in a lagoon enclosed by a barrier reef forming a near-atoll, and 41 low coral islands along the atoll (Rehman et al., 2013). Specific information on the echinoderm fauna of Chuuk, Micronesia has been described in reports by Kerr (1994), Kerr et al. (2007, 2008), Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST, 2009), and Lee and Shin (2013). We surveyed the echinoderm fauna at one intertidal site and 16 SCUBA diving points around Chuuk and assembled a checklist of echinoderms of this island.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    We collected echinoderms at 17 sites in Chuuk from 11-25 Nov 2012 (Table 1, Fig. 1). One intertidal zone of Weno Island was coral sand and rocky, and other 16 subtidal zones were investigated by SCUBA diving at depths of 10-40 m. The GPS coordinates and depth of each site were recorded (Table 1). All collected specimens were preserved in 95% ethyl alcohol and were identified based on their morphological characteristics. Important morphological characteristics and live conditions were photographed by a digital camera (Nikon D7000; Nikon Co., Tokyo, Japan), stereo- and lightmicroscopes (Nikon SMZ1000, Eclipse 80i), and scanning electron microscope (JSM-6510; JEOL, Tokyo, Japan). These specimens were identified mainly based on AM Clark and Rowe (1971) and Lee and Shin (2013). Specimens were deposited in the Marine Echinoderm Resource Bank of Korea (MERBK), Sahmyook University, Seoul, Korea.

    RESULTS

    A total of 165 specimens collected for the echinoderm faunistic study of Chuuk were identified as 35 species in 28 genera: two crinoids, eight asteroids, four ophiuroids, seven echinoids, and 14 holothuroids. Of these, five echinoderms including one asteroid (Gomophia egyptiaca Gray, 1840), one ophiuroid (Ophionereis porrecta Lyman, 1860), one echinoid [Schizaster lacunosus (Linnaeus, 1758)], and two holothuroids (Opheodesoma spectabilis Fisher, 1907 and Thelenota anax H.L. Clark, 1921) which were marked with asterisks in the following list, were newly recorded on Micronesia and described with brief remarks.

    Phylum Echinodermata Klein, 1734 Subphylum Crinozoa Matsumoto, 1929 Class Crinoidea Müller, 1821 Order Comatulida AH Clark, 1908 Family Comasteridae AH Clark 1908 Subfamily Comasterinae AH Clark, 1909 Genus Comaster L Agassiz, 1836

    1. Comaster schlegelii(Carpenter, 1881)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Ferit Island diving, 14 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Palau, Guam, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Bengal Bay.

    Genus Oxycomanthus Rowe, Hoggett, Birtles and Vail, 1986

    2. Oxycomanthus bennetti(Müller, 1841)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Holap diving, 17 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Atoll diving-3, 19 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Atoll diving-6, 20 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Atoll diving-8, 21 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Palau, Guam, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Bengal Bay.

    Subphylum Asterozoa von Zittel, 1895 Class Asteroidea de Blainville, 1830 Order Valvatida Perrier, 1884 Family Acanthasteridae Sladen, 1889 Genus Acanthaster Gervais, 1841

    3. Acanthaster planci(Linnaeus, 1758)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Atoll diving-8, 21 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Yap), Guam, Palau, New Zealand (Kermadec Islands), Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Mauritius, Madagascar), Red Sea.

    Family Ophidiasteridae Verrill, 1870 Genus Gomophia Gray, 1840

    *4. Gomophia egyptiaca Gray, 1840 (Fig. 3A-C)

    Gomophia egyptiaca Gray, 1840: 286; AH Clark, 1954: 255; AM Clark and Rowe, 1971: 64; Yamaguchi, 1975: 14; Tortonese, 1977: 276; Mah, 2014: 213303.

    Nardoa aegyptiaca: Fisher, 1919: 382.

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Mokumok Island diving, 13 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Sand Island diving, 14 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk), southern Japan, China, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Red Sea.

    Remarks. Body color is scarlet, and yellowish irregular patterns are on dorsal, lateral, and ventral sides of arms.

    Genus Linckia Nardo, 1834

    5. Linckia laevigata(Linnaeus, 1758) (Fig. 2A)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Sand Island diving, 14 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Atoll diving-2, 16 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Atoll diving-3, 19 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Atoll diving-8, 21 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Yap), Korea (Jeju Island), Japan, southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Guam, Hawaii, Australia, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Mauritius, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania), Red Sea.

    6. Linckia multifora (Lamarck, 1816) (Fig. 2B, C)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Weno Island intertidal, 12 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Mokumok Island diving, 13 Nov 2012; 2 specimens, Weno Island intertidal, 13 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Ferit Island diving, 14 Nov 2012; 3 specimens, Sand Island diving, 14 Nov 2012; 2 specimens, Weno Island intertidal, 15 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Weno Island intertidal, 17 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Holap diving, 17 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Atoll diving-5, 19 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Atoll diving-7, 20 Nov 2012; 2 specimens, Atoll diving-8, 21 Nov 2012; 2 specimens, Xavier school diving, 22 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Yap), southern China, Guam, Australia, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Madagascar), Red Sea.

    Family Goniasteridae Forbes, 1841 Genus Fromia Gray, 1840

    7. Fromia nodosa AM Clark, 1967

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Ferit Island diving, 14 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Palau, Guam, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Bengal Bay.

    Family Oreasteridae Fisher, 1911 Genus Choriaster Lütken, 1869

    8. Choriaster granulatus Lütken, 1869 (Fig. 2D)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Sand Island diving, 14 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Atoll diving-1, 16 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, Palau, New Caledonia, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa, Red Sea.

    Genus Culcita (L Agassiz, 1836)

    9. Culcita novaeguineae Müller and Troschel, 1842 (Fig. 2E, F)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Weno Island intertidal, 13 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Weno Island intertidal, 17 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Holap diving, 17 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Atoll diving-5, 19 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Atoll diving-6, 20 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, Palau, Marshall Islands, Hawaii, northern Australia, Bengal Bay, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Madagascar, Mozambique).

    Order Spinulosida Perrier, 1884 Family Echinasteridae Verrill, 1867 Genus Echinaster Müller and Troschel, 1840

    10. Echinaster luzonicus (Gray, 1840)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Benedict diving, 13 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Weno Island intertidal, 13 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Holap diving, 17 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, Palau, South Pacific, northern Australia, New Caledonia.

    Class Ophiuroidea Gray, 1840 Order Ophiurida Müller and Troschel, 1840 Infraorder Gnathophiurina Matsumoto, 1915 Family Ophiactidae Matsumoto, 1915 Genus Ophiactis Lütken, 1856

    11. Ophiactis savignyi (Müller and Troschel, 1842)

    Material examined. 7 specimens, Mokumok Island diving, 13 Nov 2012; 5 specimens, Ferit Island diving, 14 Nov 2012; 2 specimens, Holap diving, 17 Nov 2012; 4 specimens, Atoll diving-8, 21 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Yap), Korea (Korea Strait, Jeju Island), Japan (Honshu, Kyushu), China, Philippines, Guam, northern Australia, Singapore, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Tanzania, Madagascar), Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Ocean.

    Family Ophicomidae Ljungman, 1867 Genus Ophiocoma L Agassiz, 1835

    12. Ophiocoma erinaceus Müller and Troschel, 1842 (Fig. 2G)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Weno Island intertidal, 12 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Weno Island intertidal, 15 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, Hawaii, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa, Red Sea.

    Family Ophionereididae Ljungman, 1867 Genus Ophionereis Lütken, 1859

    *13. Ophionereis porrecta Lyman, 1860 (Fig. 3D-G)

    Ophionereis porrecta Lyman, 1860: 260; AH Clark, 1954: 259; Starmer, 2003: 555; Stöhr, 2011: 35; Stöhr and O’Hara, 2014: 213419.

    Ophionereis squamata Ljungman, 1867: 310. Ophionereis crassispina Ljungman, 1867: 311. Ophionereis sophiae Brock, 1888: 490.

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Ferit Island diving, 14 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk), Saipan, Guam, Mariana Islands, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Madagascar, Tanzania), Red Sea.

    Remarks. This species was collected inside hole of the sponge. Disk color is pale brown, and pale brown line is represented along width of arm.

    Family Ophiotrichidae Ljungman, 1867 Genus Ophiothrix Müller and Troschel, 1840

    14. Ophiothrix (Acanthophiothrix) purpurea von Martens, 1867 (Fig. 2H)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Holap diving, 17 Nov 2012; 2 specimens, Atoll diving-10, 21 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae), southern China, Guam, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Madagascar, Tanzania), Red Sea.

    Subphylum Echinozoa Class Echinoidea Leske, 1778 Order Diadematoida Duncan, 1889 Family Diadematidae Gray, 1855 Genus Echinothrix Peters, 1853

    15. Echinothrix diadema (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Benedict diving, 13 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, Hawaii, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa, Red Sea.

    Order Camarodonta Jackson, 1912 Family Temnopleuridae A Agassiz, 1872 Genus Mespilia Desor, 1846

    16. Mespilia globulus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Fig. 2I, J)

    Material examined. 2 specimens, Weno Island intertidal, 12 Nov 2012; 3 specimens, Weno Island intertidal, 15 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Weno Island intertidal, 17 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Yap), Korea (Jeju Island), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, Hawaii, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa, Red Sea.

    Family Parasaleniidae Mortensen, 1903 Genus Parasalenia A Agassiz, 1863

    17. Parasalenia gratiosa A Agassiz, 1863 (Fig. 2L)

    Material examined. 2 specimens, Weno Island intertidal, 12 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Ferit Island diving, 14 Nov 2012; 3 specimens, Weno Island intertidal, 15 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Weno Island intertidal, 17 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae), southern China, Guam, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique), Red Sea.

    Family Echinometridae Gray, 1855 Genus Echinostrephus A Agassiz, 1863

    18. Echinostrephus aciculatus A Agassiz, 1863

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Benedict diving, 13 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Taiwan, East Australia, Indo-West Pacific.

    Genus Echinometra Gray, 1825

    19. Echinometra mathaei (Blainville, 1825) (Fig. 2K)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Weno Island intertidal, 13 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Yap), Korea (Jeju Island), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, Solomon Islands, Hawaii, North Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Red Sea, eastern Africa.

    Order Clypeasteroida L Agassiz, 1835 Family Laganidae L Agassiz, 1835 Genus Laganum Link, 1807

    20. Laganum laganum (Leske, 1778) (Fig. 3H, I)

    Material examined. 2 specimens, Weno Island intertidal, 12 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Hawaii, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, West Indian Ocean, eastern Africa.

    Order Spatangoida L Agassiz, 1840 Family Schizasteridae Lambert, 1905 Genus Schizaster L Agassiz, 1836

    *21. Schizaster lacunosus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Fig. 3J-L)

    Echinus lacunosus Linnaeus, 1758: 665.

    Schizaster japonicus: A Agassiz, 1879: 212; 1881: 202, Pl. 36, figs. 8-13, Pl. 43, figs. 7-10; Döderlein, 1885: 109; A Agassiz and HL Clark, 1907: 137.

    Schizaster lacunosus: Mortensen, 1907: 120; HL Clark, 1917: 193; Mortensen, 1951: 300, Pl. 21, figs. 5-10, 14-18, Pl. 54, figs. 1-3, 5, 7-9, 12, 14-17, text-figs. 140a, b; AM Clark and Rowe, 1971: 146, 166; Rho and Shin, 1981: 35, Pl. 11, figs. 1-5; Shin, 2011: 98; Kroh and Mooi, 2014: 214662.

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Sand Island diving, 14 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk), Korea (Korea Strait, Jeju Island), Japan (Sagami Bay-Kagoshima Bay), East China Sea, Hong Kong, Arafura Sea, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, East Africa.

    Remarks. This species was found at the Korea Strait and Jeju Island of South Korea, and it is widely distributed in subtropical and tropical regions from the Pacific to Atlantic. Naked test collected at depth of 13 m and covered with coral sand.

    Class Holothuroidea de Blainville, 1834 Order Apodida Brandt, 1835 Family Synaptidae Burmeister, 1837 Genus Opheodesoma Fisher, 1907

    *22. Opheodesoma spectabilis Fisher, 1907 (Fig. 4A-C)

    Opheodesoma spectabilis Fisher, 1907: 723; HL Clark, 1924: 467; Domantay, 1954: 354; AM Clark and Rowe, 1971: 186; Paulay, 2014: 210712.

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Weno Island intertidal, 17 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk), Guam, Hawaii, Philippines, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Kenya, Madagascar), Red Sea.

    Remarks. This species was collected at sea grass region. Body color was dark reddish brown. Morphological characteristics of ossicles are as follows: symmetrical anchor plates with six large toothed holes; handle with one large hole and four or five small smooth holes along the edge of handle; anchor with smooth flukes, and about seven to 10 minutely tubercles on the middle of head.

    Genus Synaptula Örsted, 1849

    23. Synaptula recta (Semper, 1868) (Fig. 4D)

    Material examined. 4 specimens, Weno Island intertidal, 12 Nov 2012; 5 specimens, Weno Island intertidal, 13 Nov 2012; 2 specimens, Weno Island intertidal, 15 Nov 2012; 2 specimens, Weno Island intertidal, 17 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Phonpei), Papua New Guinea, Guam, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Sri Lanka, Maldive Island, Ceylon, Red Sea.

    Order Aspidochirotida Grube, 1840 Family Holothuriidae Ludwig, 1894 Genus Actinopyga Bronn, 1860

    24. Actinopyga miliaris (Quoy and Gaimard, 1834)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Atoll diving-4, 19 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae), Palau, New Caledonia.

    Genus Bohadschia Jaeger, 1833

    25. Bohadschia argus Jaeger, 1833 (Fig. 4E)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Atoll diving-4, 19 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indonesia, Bengal Bay.

    26. Bohadschia marmorata Jaeger, 1833

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Weno Island intertidal, 12 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Weno Island intertidal, 15 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Bengal Bay, eastern Africa, Red Sea.

    Genus Holothuria Linnaeus, 1767

    27. Holothuria (Halodeima) edulis Lesson, 1830 (Fig. 4F)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Sand Island diving, 14 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Atoll diving-7, 20 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Atoll diving-9, 21 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Guam, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indonesia, Indo-West Pacific, Bengal Bay.

    28. Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) hilla Lesson, 1830

    Material examined. 3 specimens, Weno Island intertidal, 12 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Mokumok Island diving, 13 Nov 2012; 3 specimens, Weno Island intertidal, 15 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae), Korea (Korea Strait, Jeju Island), southern Japan, Guam, Hawaii, Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Africa (Zanzibar).

    29. Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt, 1835) (Fig. 4G)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Mokumok Island diving, 13 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Benedict diving, 13 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Weno Island intertidal, 15 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Atoll diving-6, 20 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Xavier school diving, 22 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae), southern China, Guam, Indo-West Pacific, West Indian Ocean, eastern Africa (Madagascar), Red Sea.

    30. Holothuria (Semperothuria) flavomaculata Semper, 1868 (Fig. 4H)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Weno Island intertidal, 12 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Weno Island intertidal, 13 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Yap), eastern Thailand, Philippines, Guam, South Pacific Islands, Australia, Indo-West Pacific, eastern Africa (Madagascar).

    31. Holothuria (Stauropora) pervicax Selenka, 1867

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Weno Island intertidal, 12 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae), Korea (Jeju Island), southern China, Philippines, Guam, Hawaii, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Indian Ocean, eastern Africa, Red Sea.

    Genus Pearsonothuria Levin, 1984

    32. Pearsonothuria graeffei (Semper, 1868) (Fig. 4I)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Atoll diving-25, 16 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Weno Island intertidal, 17 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Atoll diving-5, 19 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Atoll diving-7, 20 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Yap), southern China, Philippines, Guam, Indo-West Pacific, Africa (Comoros, Madagascar), Red Sea.

    Genus Stichopus Brandt, 1835

       33. Stichopus horrens Selenka, 1867 (Fig. 4J)

    Material examined. 2 specimens, Weno Island intertidal, 12 Nov 2012; 3 specimens, Weno Island intertidal, 17 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Yap), southern Japan, southern China, Philippines, Hawaii, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indonesia, Maldive Island.

    34. Stichopus vastus Sluiter, 1887 (Fig. 4K)

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Xavier school diving, 22 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk, Yap), Papua New Guinea, Palau Islands, Indonesia, northern Australia.

    Genus Thelenota Brandt, 1835

    *35. Thelenota anax HL Clark, 1921 (Fig. 4L)

    Thelenota anax HL Clark, 1921: 185, Pl. 18 fig. 3; Liao, 1975: 205, fig. 6 (1-10); Cherbonnier, 1979: 9, fig. 5A-N; Liao, 1984: 222, 243; Féral and Cherbonnier, 1986: 100, figs 39, 40O; Massin and Lane, 1991: 57; Liao and AM Clark, 1995: 470, fig. 283a-d; Rowe and Gates, 1995: 327; Massin, 1999: 78, figs. 63a-k, 64; Paulay, 2014: 210915.

    Stichopus variegatus AM Clark, 1984: 88, fig. 2.

    Material examined. 1 specimen, Atoll diving-1, 16 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Atoll diving-5, 19 Nov 2012; 1 specimen, Atoll diving-10, 21 Nov 2012.

    Distribution. Micronesia (Chuuk), Japan (Ryukyu Islands), southern China, Fiji, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Marshall Islands, Guam, Palau Islands, South Pacific, northern Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldive Island, Madagascar.

    Remark. This species has a unique body color and shape. Specimens have huge body sizes, and the longest length reached about 49 cm.

    DISCUSSION

    The echinoderm fauna of Micronesia was firstly reported by Kerr (1994) with regard to Holothuroidea in Kosrae. Kerr et al. (2007) investigated 19 locations of Yap over 2 weeks (27 Jul-9 Aug 2007) and reported 66 species, including 16 unidentified species: five crinoids (four unidentified), 14 asteroids (two unidentified), 14 echinoids (three unidentified), and 33 holothuroids (seven unidentified). Kerr et al. (2008) also surveyed 21 locations of Kosrae over two weeks (22 Feb-7 Mar 2008) and reported 74 species, including 20 unidentified species. KIOST (2009) recorded list of 20 echinoderms, six asteroids (one unidentified), two echinoids and 12 holothuroids (three unidentified), from Weno Island of Chuuk. Lee and Shin (2013) surveyed at eight intertidal areas and 12 SCUBA diving points of 10-50 m depths in the subtidal zone of Kosrae (23-30 Jan 2011 and 8-15 Jan 2012) and reported 50 species of three crinoids, 11 asteroids, seven ophiuroids, 10 echinoids, and 19 holothuroids, including 16 newly recorded species. Our faunistic study of echinoderms was performed at one intertidal site as well as 16 subtidal sites at depths of 8-40 m in Chuuk from 11-25 Nov 2012 (Table 1, Fig. 1). In total, 165 specimens were collected and classified as 35 species, excluding one unidentified species, and they were identified based on morphological characteristics. Seven echinoderms, including one asteroid (L. laevigata), one ophiuroid (O. savignyi), three echinoids (M. globulus, E. mathaei, and S. lacunosus), and two holothuroids [H. (Mertensiothuria) hilla and H. (Stauropora) pervicax] were also distributed at the Korea Strait and Jeju Island of Korea due to the warm Kuroshio Current. Holothuroids abundantly inhabited Chuuk, and S. recta, H. (M.) hilla, and S. horrens were particularly dominant species. Mespilia globulus and P. gratiosa were also dominant echinoids and inhabited rocky cracks at wide intertidal zone of Station 1 (Weno Island) (Table 1). We newly reported five echinoderms from Micronesia that have not been reported by Kerr (1994), Kerr et al. (2007, 2008), KIOST (2009), or Lee and Shin (2013): Gomophia egyptiaca Gray, 1840, Ophionereis porrecta Lyman, 1860, Schizaster lacunosus (Linnaeus, 1758), Opheodesoma spectabilis Fisher, 1907), and Thelenota anax (H.L. Clark, 1921). In addition, one unidentified ophiuroid (Ophiothrix sp.) needs to be identified for further verification.

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  • [Table 1.] Geological information for collection sites around Chuuk
    Geological information for collection sites around Chuuk
  • [Fig. 1.] A map showing the collection sites in Chuuk.
    A map showing the collection sites in Chuuk.
  • [Fig. 2.] Some echinoderms from Chuuk. A, Linckia laevigata; B, C, L. multifora; D, Choriaster granulatus; E, Culcita novaeguineae (young); F, C. novaeguineae (adult); G, Ophiocoma erinaceus; H, Ophiothrix (Acanthophiothrix) pupurea; I, J, Mespila globulus; K, Echinometra mathaei; L, Parasalenia gratiosa.
    Some echinoderms from Chuuk. A, Linckia laevigata; B, C, L. multifora; D, Choriaster granulatus; E, Culcita novaeguineae (young); F, C. novaeguineae (adult); G, Ophiocoma erinaceus; H, Ophiothrix (Acanthophiothrix) pupurea; I, J, Mespila globulus; K, Echinometra mathaei; L, Parasalenia gratiosa.
  • [] Fig. 3. Gomophia egyptiaca (A-C), Ophionereis porrecta (D-G), Laganum laganum (H, I), Schizaster lacunosus (J-L). A, D, H, J, Dorsal side; B, E, I, K, Ventral side; C, G, Oral part; F, Radial shield and arm; L, Lateral side. Scale bars: A, B, H, I = 2 cm, C = 1 cm, D, E = 2 mm, F, G = 1 mm, J - L = 1.5 cm.
    Fig. 3. Gomophia egyptiaca (A-C), Ophionereis porrecta (D-G), Laganum laganum (H, I), Schizaster lacunosus (J-L). A, D, H, J, Dorsal side; B, E, I, K, Ventral side; C, G, Oral part; F, Radial shield and arm; L, Lateral side. Scale bars: A, B, H, I = 2 cm, C = 1 cm, D, E = 2 mm, F, G = 1 mm, J - L = 1.5 cm.
  • [Fig. 4.] Holothuroids from Chuuk. A, Opheodesoma spectabilis; B, Anchors of body wall of O. spectabilis; C, Anchor plates of body wall of O. spectabilis; D, Synaptula recta; E, Bohadschia argus; F, Holothuria (Halodeima) edulis; G, H. (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota; H, H. (Semerothuria) flavomaculata; I, Pearsonothuria graeffei; J, Stichopus horrens; K, S. vastus; L, Thelenota anax. Scale bars: B, C=50 μm.
    Holothuroids from Chuuk. A, Opheodesoma spectabilis; B, Anchors of body wall of O. spectabilis; C, Anchor plates of body wall of O. spectabilis; D, Synaptula recta; E, Bohadschia argus; F, Holothuria (Halodeima) edulis; G, H. (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota; H, H. (Semerothuria) flavomaculata; I, Pearsonothuria graeffei; J, Stichopus horrens; K, S. vastus; L, Thelenota anax. Scale bars: B, C=50 μm.