Taxonomic Study of the Subfamily Lycorininae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from Korea

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  • ABSTRACT

    Korean species of the subfamily Lycorininae Cushman & Rohwer are reviewed. This subfamily along with three species, Lycorina triangulifera Holmgren, 1859, L. spilonotae Chao, 1980, and L. ruficornis Kasparyan, 2007, are reported for the first time from Korea. In this genus, five species have been reported from the Eastern Palaearctic region, six species from China and two species from Japan. Some species of this subfamily is known as parasitoids of Crambidae and Tortricidae. We report three newly recorded species from Korea, Lycorina triangulifera, L. spilonotae, and L. ruficornis, and provide diagnoses with photographs of lycorinine species and a key to the Korean species.


  • KEYWORD

    Korea , Lycorina triangulifera , Lycorina spilonotae , Lycorina ruficornis , taxonomy

  • INTRODUCTION

    The subfamily Lycorininae Cushman & Rohwer, 1920 is a small group with a single genus, Lycorina. It is a cosmopolitan genus with 30 described species (Yu et al., 2012). In this genus, five species have been reported from the Eastern Palaearctic region, six species from China, two species from Japan. This subfamily is easily distinguished from other ichneumonid families based on tergites with a triangular area by deep impressions (Fig. 1G, I); pronotum with anterior margin reflexed; and hypopygium of female large triangular in lateral view (Fig. 2C). The focal host range appears to be weakly concealed larva of micro-lepidopteran species. Some species have been reared from Crambidae in leaf-rolls or webs (Doerksen and Neunzig, 1974; Finlayson, 1976) and Tortricidae (Chao, 1980; Shaw, 2004).

    In this study, we add three newly recorded species, Lycorina triangulifera Holmgren, L. spilonotae Chao, and L. ruficornis Kasparyan, to Korean ichneumonoids fauna and provide descriptions, a key to the Korean species, and photographs.

    Materials used in this work were collected by sweeping and Malaise trap, after which they were deposited in the animal systematic laboratory of the Yeungnam University(YNU, Gyeongsan, Korea). Specimens were examined by a AxioCam MRc5 camera attached to a stereo microscope (Zeiss SteREO Discovery. V20; Carl Zeiss, Göttingen, Germany), processed using AxioVision SE64 software (Carl Zeiss), and optimized with a Delta imaging system (i-solution; IMT i-Solution Inc., Vancouver, Canada).

    Abbreviations are as follows: TD, type depository; TS, type species; ZI, Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences, Russia; NR, Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Sektionen für Entomologi, Stockholm, Sweden; UZM, Universitets Zoologiske Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark; USN, Dipartimento di Zoologia, Università degli Studi di Napoli, Via Mezzocannone 8, Napoli, Italy; FAFU, Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University, Institute of Beneficial Insects, Fuzhou, Fujian, China; GW, Gangwon-do; GG, Gyeonggi-do; GN, Gyeongsangnam-do; JJ, Jeju-do.

    SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNTS

    Order HymenopteraFamily Ichneumonidae Latreille, 1802Subfamily Lycorininae Cushman & Rohwer, 1920Genus Lycorina Holmgren, 1859

    Lycorina Holmgren, 1859: 126. TS: Lycorina triangulifera Holmgren.Amyx Schiødte, 1839: 309. TS: Amyx flavilabris SchiødteToxophoroides Cresson, 1874: 406. TS: Lycorina? Apicalis Cresson.Chlorolycorina Cushman, 1920: 7. TS: Glypta scitula Cushman.Gonioglyphus Seyrig, 1932: 183. TS: Lycorina fici Seyrig.

      >  Key to the species of the subfamily Lycorininae from Korea

    1. Face almost yellow (Fig. 1E); posterior part of propodeum yellow; fore and mid coxa yellow, base of coxa slight brown; nervellus of hind wing intercepted on a little lower third of it (Fig. 2D); metasomal segments with yellow line to apex (Fig. 1H) ……………………Lycorina spilonotae C. - Face almost black or with small yellow spots (Fig. 1D, F); propodeum black; fore and mid coxa black; nervellus of hind wing intercepted on lower fourth of it (Fig. 2E); metasomal segments black (Fig. 1G, I) …………………………22. Margin of clypeus almost round or weakly concave (Fig. 1D, E); fore femur straight (Fig. 2A); hind femur reddish ………………………………………Lycorina triangulifera H.- Margin of clypeus strongly emergence (Fig. 1F); fore femur very strongly curved (Fig. 2B); hind femur yellow ……………………………………………………Lycorina ruficornis K.

      >  1*Lycorina triangulifera Holmgren, 1859

    Lycorina triangulifera Holmgren, 1859: 126. Type: female, TD: NR.Amyx flavilabris (Schiødte, 1839): 309. Type: female, TD: UZM.Glypta lycorinoides (Costa, 1886a): 40. Type: unknown, TD: USN.Glypta sardoa (Costa, 1886b): 51. Type: unknown, TD: USN.

    Material examined. Korea: 1 female, GG, Namyangju-si, Joan-myeon, Songchon-ri, Ungilsan, 37° 34′43.2′′N, 127° 18′ 37.5′′E, 26 Jun-16 Jul 2009, Lim JO; 2 females, GG, Anyangsi, Manan-gu, Kwanag Arb., alt. 219 m, 37° 18′5.3′′N, 127° 19′1.5′′E, 5-19 Jul 2007, Lim JO; 1 male, GN, Milyang-si, Sajapyeong, 22 Jun 1993, Lee JW; 1 female, Daegu-si, Dalsegu, Daegok-dong, Daegu Arb., alt. 88 m, 35° 47′48.6′′N, 128° 31′33.5′′E, 20 Jun-4 Jul 2012, Kang SG.

    Diagnosis. Female. Fore wing 6.4-6.6 mm, body 7.0-7.2 mm, ovipositor 3.0-3.2 mm long.

    Color: Body black. Face with pairs yellow spots and behind margins of eyes with yellow line. Clypeus, palpi, central part of mandible, malar space, fore and mid legs except coxa, tegula, scutellum from behind and postscutellum yellow. Antennal flagellum ventrally and ovipositor brown. Hind trochantellus to femur reddish brown. Hind tibia except apically and ovipositor sheath except apically dark brown.

    Head: Face moderately dense punctured, the distance between points longer than their diameter, 1.3 times as wide as high, central part of face convex laterally. Frons with longitudinal carina, concave above base of antennae, raised laterally. Clypeus moderately flat, with round apical edge, separated from face by transverse groove; clypeus and temple finely shagreened between points. Malar space 1.0 times as long as basal width of mandible. Flagellum with 27-29 segments, first segment 4.5 times as long as wide, apical segments square. Scape swollen, 1.7 times as wide as width of first flagellomere.

    Mesosoma: Epomia present, strong, with upper end arcuate produced. Pronotum mediodorsally without deep transverse furrow that is crossed by a longitudinal ‘bridge’. Middle lobe of mesoscutum in front vertically descending down. Pronotum loosely punctated. Notaulus shallow. Mesoscutum slightly longer than wide, 1.3 times as long as wide. Scutellum carinated and convex. Mesoscutum and scutellum sparsely punctured more than head. Subalar prominence convex, speculum separated and glabrous, with pit strong, epicnemial carina incomplete. Propodeum very short, anterior transverse carina present, propodeal spiracle small, oval, closer to lateral longitudinal carina than to pleural, basal area glabrous. Nervellus intercepted on lower fourth, discoidella vestigial. Hind wing with 10-11 distal hamuli. Leg slender, correlation between length of hind tarsal segments as 50 : 16 : 11 : 7 : 13. Tarsal claws pectinate.

    Metasoma: Depressed. Raised central triangular areas large and strongly transverse (Fig. 1G), terga quite closely and coarsely punctate. Ovipositor sheath 1.6 times as long as hind tibia.

    Host. [Lepidoptera]: Gelechiidae, Anacampsis timidella (Capek, 1955), Tortricidae, Archips rosana (Sedivy, 1986; Jonaitis, 1992), Epiblema foenella (Uffeln, 1940), Epiblema sticticana (Aubert, 1978), Yponomeutidae, Yponomeuta malinella (Meyer, 1934), Yponometuta padella (Friese, 1963). [Coleoptera]: Cerambycidae, Saperda populnea (Kleine, 1909; Scheidter, 1917; Postner, 1954; Fulmek, 1968; Uhthoff-Kaufmann, 1991).

    Distribution. Korea (new record), Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, China, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Moldova, Mongolia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom.

      >  1*Lycorina spilonotae Chao, 1980

    Lycorina spilonotae Chao, 1980: 165. Type: female, TD: FAFU.

    Material examined. Korea: 1 female, JJ, Jeju-si, Donggyemyeon, near Jeolmul, 25 Aug-2 Sep 2005, Sin CH.

    Diagnosis. Female. Fore wing 5.8 mm, body 6.9 mm, ovipositor 2.8 mm long.

    Color: Body black. Face, clypeus, malar space, fore and mid coxa to trochantellus, tegula, scutellum, postscutellum and tergites apex lines apically yellow. Margin of eyes vertex in temple, mandible except apical teeth, palpi, fore and mid legs except base, half of pronotum yellow. Antennal flagellomeres dark brown but brown ventrally. Hind coxa dark brown. Hind leg brown except apex of tibia and tarsus dark brown. Ovipositor brown.

    Head: Face and clypeus very sparsely punctuated, 1.1 times as wide as high, central part of face weakly convex laterally. Frons with longitudinal carina, concave above base of antennae, weakly raised laterally. Clypeus moderately flat, separated from face by transverse groove. Malar space 0.8 times as long as basal width of mandible. Ocelli area convex. Flagellum with 28 segments, first segment 3.4 times as long as wide, apical segments square. Scape swollen, 1.6 times as wide as width of first flagellomere.

    Mesosoma: Epomia present, with upper end arcuate produced. Pronotum mediodorsally without deep transverse furrow that is crossed by a longitudinal ‘bridge’. Pronotum with furrow and wrinkle, central part glabrous. Notaulus shallow. Mesoscutum slightly longer than wide, 1.3 times as long as wide. Scutellum carinated and convex. Mesoscutum closely punctated, scutellum sparsely punctured. Subalar prominence weakly concave, speculum convex and glabrous, with pit weak, epicnemial carina incomplete. Mesopleuron coarsely punctured except below of speculum finely shagreened. Propodeum very short, with scattered punctures, anterior transverse carina incomplete, posterior transverse carina distinct. Propodeal spiracle small, rounded, closer to pleural carina than to lateral longitudinal. Nervellus intercepted on a little lower third of it, discoidella vestigial. Hind wing with nine distal hamuli. Legs slender, correlation between length of hind tarsal segments as 36 : 15 : 10 : 6 : 11. Tarsal claws pectinate.

    Metasoma: Depressed. Raised central triangular areas large and strongly transverse (Fig. 1H), terga very closely and coarsely punctate. Ovipositor sheath 1.1 times as long as hind tibia.

    Host. [Lepidoptera]: Tortricidae, Adoxophyes orana (He et al., 1996), Spilonota lechriaspis (Chao, 1980; He et al., 1996).

    Distribution. Korea (new record), China.

      >  1*Lycorina ruficornis Kasparyan, 2007

    Lycorina ruficornis Kasparyan, 2007: 429. Type: female, TD: ZI.

    Material examined. Korea: 1 female, GW, Yanggu-gun, Gachilbong, 31 May 1992, Lee JW.

    Diagnosis. Female. Fore wing 5.5 mm, body 6.5 mm, ovipositor 2.8 mm long.

    Color: Body black. Clypeus, palpi, mandible apically and tegula yellow. Fore and mid legs except coxa and trochanters, hind femur and tibia except apical yellow, coxa and trochanters black, hind tarsus dark brown. Ovipositor brown, ovipositor sheath except apically dark brown.

    Head: Face sparsely punctuated, 1.2 times as wide as high, central part of face weakly convex laterally. Frons with longitudinal carina, concave above base of antennae, weakly raised laterally. Clypeus emarginated, weakly convex, separated from face by transverse carina. Malar space 0.9 times as long as basal width of mandible. Ocellar area convex. Flagellum with 26 segments, first segment 3.8 times as long as wide, apical segments square. Scape swollen, 1.8 times as wide as width of first flagellomere.

    Mesosoma: Epomia present, with upper end arcuate produced. Pronotum mediodorsally without deep transverse furrow that is crossed by a longitudinal ‘bridge’. Pronotum loosely punctated. Notaulus shallow. Mesoscutum slightly shorter than wide, 0.9 times as long as wide. Scutellum carinated. Mesoscutum closely punctated, scutellum with scattered punctures. Subalar prominence convex, speculum convex and glabrous, with strong pit, epicnemial carina incomplete. Mesopleuron sparsely punctured except below weakly rugosely punctured. Propodeum very short, with coarsely punctures, anterior transverse carina absent, posterior transverse carina distinct. Propodeal spiracle small, rounded, located middle of lateral area. Nervellus intercepted on a lower fourth, discoidella vestigial. Hind wing with nine distal hamuli. Leg slender but fore femur very strongly curved, correlation between length of hind tarsal segments as 10 : 4 : 3 : 2 : 4. Tarsal claws pectinate.

    Metasoma: Depressed. Raised central triangular areas large and strongly transverse (Fig. 1I), terga coarsely punctuate, first and second central triangular area very sparsely punctuated. Ovipositor sheath 1.3 times as long as hind tibia.

    Host. Unknown.

    Distribution. Korea (new record), Russia.

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  • [Fig. 1.] Korean Lycorininae. A-C, Habitus in dorsal view; A, Lycorina triangulifera; B, L. spilonotae; C, L. ruficornis; D-F, Head in frontal view; D, L. triangulifera; E, L. spilonotae; F, L. ruficornis; G-I, Metasoma in dorsal view; G, L. triangulifera; H, L. spilonotae; I, L. ruficornis. Scale bars: A?C=2 mm, D?F=0.2 mm, G, H=1 mm, I=0.5 mm.
    Korean Lycorininae. A-C, Habitus in dorsal view; A, Lycorina triangulifera; B, L. spilonotae; C, L. ruficornis; D-F, Head in frontal view; D, L. triangulifera; E, L. spilonotae; F, L. ruficornis; G-I, Metasoma in dorsal view; G, L. triangulifera; H, L. spilonotae; I, L. ruficornis. Scale bars: A?C=2 mm, D?F=0.2 mm, G, H=1 mm, I=0.5 mm.
  • [Fig. 2.] A, B, Fore femur in lateral view; A, Lycorina triangulifera; B, L. ruficornis; C, Hypopygium and ovipositor sheath of L. spilonotae; D, E, Wings; D, L. spilonotae; E, L. triangulifera. Scale bars: A, C=0.5 mm, B=0.2 mm, D, E=1 mm.
    A, B, Fore femur in lateral view; A, Lycorina triangulifera; B, L. ruficornis; C, Hypopygium and ovipositor sheath of L. spilonotae; D, E, Wings; D, L. spilonotae; E, L. triangulifera. Scale bars: A, C=0.5 mm, B=0.2 mm, D, E=1 mm.