Distillers Dried Grain from Makgeolli By-product Is Useful as a Dietary Ingredient for Growth of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

  • cc icon
  • ABSTRACT

    We tested the effects of various distillers dried grains (DDGs) in a formulated diet on growth and body composition of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. DDG is a solid residue obtained by filtering an aqueous mixture of fermented rice with Aspergillus oryzae and yeasts. Six isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (DDG0, DDG-G, DDG-C, DDG-K, DDG-W, and DDG-P) were formulated to contain 20% DDG obtained from different Makgeolli factories. Juvenile sea cucumber (average weight, 2.1 ± 0.02 g) were randomly distributed in eighteen 50-L rectangular plastic tanks (40 L of water each) in a seawater flow-through system at a density of 50 juveniles/tank. Three replicate groups of sea cucumber were fed each of the six experimental diets at a feeding rate of 5% body weight per day for 22 weeks. At the end of the feeding experiment, survival and weight gain of the juvenile sea cucumber were not affected by the type of dietary DDG (P>0.05), and the proximate and amino acid compositions of the whole body were not affected by dietary DDG diets (P>0.05). These results indicate that rice-based DDG is a potential dietary ingredient that could be used at dietary concentrations of up to 20% for growth of juvenile sea cucumber.


  • KEYWORD

    Sea cucumber , Distillers dried grain , Growth , Body composition , Apostichopus japonicus

  • Introduction

    The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is a commercially beneficial aquaculture species in Asian markets because of its high demand as a health food (Seo and Lee, 2011). However, production of sea cucumber has declined due to constant over-exploitation and water pollution (Conand, 2004). Okorie et al. (2008) noted that sea cucumber are used as a remedy for alleviating internal and external wounds and it is thought to possess aphrodisiac and curative properties. Sea cucumber are produced worldwide and have long been exploited as a potential fishery asset in Russia, China, Japan, and Korea (Yuan et al., 2006). The demand for sea cucumber has increased rapidly in recent years, leading to severe overfishing.

    Many studies have reported the nutrient requirements (Choi et al., 2009; Seo et al., 2011a, 2011b) and feed ingredients (Yuan et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2009; Slater et al., 2009) for growth of sea cucumber. Seo and Lee (2011) found that sea cucumber require relatively low dietary protein and lipid content for optimum growth. Based on the previous finding, we hypothesized that incorporating a vegetable ingredient such as distillers dried grain (DDG) into the diet might reduce feed costs (Seo et al., 2011a; Rahman et al., 2013). DDG is a cereal by-product of distillation processing and has great potential for use as an aquatic animal feed ingredient (Lim et al., 2007, 2009). Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate the effects of DDG as a promising dietary ingredient on the growth and body composition of juvenile sea cucumber.

    Materials and Methods

      >  Experimental diets

    The essential amino acid and proximate compositions of ingredients used in the experimental diets are presented in Table 1. Ingredients and nutrient contents of the experimental diets are presented in Table 2. Soybean meal and algae Undaria pinnatifida and Sargassum thunbergii powder were used as the primary protein source in the control diet. The experimental diets were formulated to contain 20% each of rice-based DDG obtained from different Makgeolli factories in place of S. thunbergii powder in the control diet. Fish oil and soybean oil were used as lipid sources. The DDG used was produced by filtering an aqueous mixture of fermented rice with Aspergillus oryzae and yeasts. All ingredients were thoroughly mixed mechanically with water at a ratio of 7:3. The pellets were dried at room temperature for 48 h and ground into desirable particle sizes for the juvenile sea cucumber. All diets were stored at −30℃ until use.

      >  Experimental animal and feeding experiment

    Juvenile sea cucumber were obtained from a local sea cucumber farm (Taean, Korea), and acclimated to the experimental condition for 2 weeks. Juvenile sea cucumber (average body weight, 2.1 ± 0.02 g) were randomly allocated to eighteen 50-L rectangular plastic tanks (40 L of water each) in a seawater flow-through system at a density of 50 animals/tank. Three replicate groups of sea cucumber were fed one of the six experimental diets at a feeding rate of 5% body weight per day

    every other day (17:00 h) for 22 weeks. Filtered seawater was continuously supplied at a flow rate of 1 L/min. Water temperature was maintained at 10.7 ± 1.07℃, and the photoperiod during the feeding trial followed natural conditions. Each tank was cleaned by siphoning every 2 days.

      >  Sample collection and chemical methods

    All sea cucumber surviving at the end of the feeding experiment were collectively weighed and sampled after 24 h of starvation, freeze dried, and ground with a mortar and pestle. Proximate composition of the experimental diets and whole body of the sea cucumber were analyzed according to standard methods (Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1995). Crude protein content was determined by the Kjeldahl method using an Auto Kjeldahl System (Buchi, Flawil, Switzerland). Moisture content was measured after drying in a 105℃ oven for 6 h. Crude lipid was determined by the ether-extraction method, and ash content was determined with a muffle furnace at 600℃ for 4 h. Amino acid composition in the experimental diets and whole body of sea cucumber were analyzed using an automatic amino acid analyzer (L-8800; column, ion exchange; injection pump pressure, 0-19.6 Mpa; flow rate, 0.05-0.99 mL/min; column oven, electrothermal cooling [30-70℃]; reaction unit, reaction column [135℃ and 50℃]; photometer: wavelengths 570 and 440 nm; Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan).

      >  Statistical analysis

    Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance using SPSS version 18.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Significant differences (P<0.05) among the means were determined using Duncan’s multiple range test. Data are presented as mean ± standard error of three replicate groups.

    Results and Discussion

    The growth performance of juvenile sea cucumber fed the experimental diets containing dietary DDG are presented in Table 3. Survival and weight gain of juvenile sea cucumber were not affected by dietary DDG (P>0.05). The compositions of proximate and essential amino acid of whole body in juvenile sea cucumber fed the experimental diets are presented in Table 4. Proximate and amino acid compositions of

    the whole body in juvenile sea cucumber were not affected by dietary DDG (P>0.05).

    No differences in growth and body composition of sea cucumber in this study by dietary DDG indicate that the rice-based DDG used in this study is considered to be a candidate as a feed ingredient for juvenile sea cucumber. Many authors have found satisfactory growth performance in tilapia when fed a diet containing corn-based DDG (Wu et al., 1996, 1997; Coyle et al., 2004; Schaeffer et al., 2009). Robinson and Li (2008) demonstrated that up to 30% corn-based DDG can be integrated into the channel catfish diet without negative effects on growth performance. Furthermore, dietary corn-based DDG may improve palatability in sunshine bass (Thompson et al., 2008). In the present study, weight gain in sea cucumber

    fed diets containing DDG was not different from that of the control group. This is thought to be due to the improved digestibility and removal of anti-nutritional factors in the DDG by fermentation. Fermentation of legumes is an important process that can develop nutritive value and reduce specific anti-nutritional factors such as phytic acids, protease inhibitors, and flatulence factors (Yigzaw et al., 2001). Including fermented soybean meal using Aspergillus oryzae improved protein and carbohydrate digestibility in a yellowtail diet (Shimeno et al., 1993). Many studies have reported that fermented plant ingredients at the proper level may be good nutrient sources for fish (Sun et al., 2007; Rahman et al., 2013) and shrimp (Molina-Poveda and Morales, 2004).

    The results of our study suggest that rice-based DDG is a good dietary ingredient and could be used at concentrations up to 20% in diet for growth of juvenile sea cucumber.

  • 1. 1995 Official Methods of Analysis. google
  • 2. Choi J, Seo JY, Lee SM 2009 Effects of sources and levels of dietary carbohydrate on growth and body composition of juvenile sea cucumbers, Apostichopus japonicus. [Fish Aquat Sci] Vol.12 P.203-208 google doi
  • 3. Conand C. 2004 Present status of world sea cucumber resources and utilization: an international overview. In: Advances in Sea Cucumber Aquaculture and Management. Lovatelli A, Conand C, Purcell S, Uthicke S, Hamel JF and Mercier A, eds. P.13-23 google
  • 4. Coyle SD, Mengel GJ, Tidwell JH, Webster CD. 2004 Evaluation of growth, feed utilization, and economics of hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus×Oreochromis aureus, fed diets containing different protein sources in combination with distillers dried grains with solubles. [Aquac Res] Vol.35 P.365-370 google doi
  • 5. Lim C, Garcia JC, Yildirim-Aksoy M, Klesius PH, Shoemaker CA, Evans JJ 2007 Growth response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fed diets containing distiller’s dried grains with solubles. [J World Aquac Soc] Vol.38 P.231-237 google doi
  • 6. Lim C, Yildirim-Aksoy M, Klesius PH. 2009 Growth response and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, fed diets containing distiller’s dried grains with solubles. [J World Aquac Soc] Vol.40 P.182-193 google doi
  • 7. Liu Y, Dong S, Tian X, Wang F, Gao Q. 2009 Effects of dietary sea mud and yellow soil on growth and energy budget of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). [Aquaculture] Vol.286 P.266-270 google doi
  • 8. Molina-Poveda C, Morales ME. 2004 Use of a mixture of barley-based fermented grains and wheat gluten as an alternative protein source in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone). [Aquac Res] Vol.35 P.1158-1165 google doi
  • 9. Okorie OE, Ko SH, Go S, Lee S, Bae JY, Han K, Bai SC. 2008 Preliminary study of the optimum dietary ascorbic acid level in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). [J World Aquac Soc] Vol.39 P.758-765 google doi
  • 10. Rahman MM, Choi J, Lee SM. 2013 Influences of dietary distillers dried grain level on growth performance, body composition and biochemical parameters of juvenile olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). [Aquacult Res] google doi
  • 11. Robinson EH, Li MH. 2008 Replacement of soybean meal in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets with cottonseed meal and distillers dried grains with solubles. [J World Aquac Soc] Vol.39 P.521-527 google doi
  • 12. Schaeffer TW, Brown ML, Rosentrater KA 2009 Performance characteristics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing graded levels of fuel-based distillers dried grains with solubles. [J Aquac Feed Sci Nutr] Vol.1 P.78-83 google doi
  • 13. Seo JY, Lee SM 2011 Optimum dietary protein and lipid levels for growth of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. [Aquac Nutr] Vol.17 P.e56-e61 google doi
  • 14. Seo JY, Shin IS, Lee SM. 2011a Effect of dietary inclusion of various plant ingredients as an alternative for Sargassum thunbergii on growth and body composition of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. [Aquac Nutr] Vol.17 P.549-556 google doi
  • 15. Seo JY, Shin IS, Lee SM. 2011b Effects of various protein sources in formulated diets on the growth and body composition of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). [Aquac Res] Vol.42 P.623-627 google doi
  • 16. Shimeno S, Mima T, Yamamoto O, Ando Y. 1993 Effects of fermented defatted soybean meal in diet on the growth, feed conversion, and body composition of juvenile yellowtail. [Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi] Vol.59 P.1883-1888 google doi
  • 17. Slater MJ, Jeffs AG, Carton AG. 2009 The use of the waste from green-lipped mussels as a food source for juvenile sea cucumber, Australostichopus mollis. [Aquaculture] Vol.292 P.219-224 google doi
  • 18. Sun M, Kim YC, Okorie OE, Lee S, Devnath S, Yoo G, Bai SC, Jo YK. 2007 Evaluation of fermented soybean curd residues as an energy source in diets for juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. [J World Aquac Soc] Vol.38 P.536-542 google doi
  • 19. Thompson KR, Rawles SD, Metts LS, Smith RG, Wimsatt A, Gannam AL, Twibell RG, Johnson RB, Brady YJ, Webster CD. 2008 Digestibility of dry matter, protein, lipid, and organic matter of two fish meals, two poultry by-product meals, soybean meal, and distiller’s dried grains with solubles in practical diets for sunshine bass, Morone chrysops×M. [saxatilis] Vol.39 P.352-363 google doi
  • 20. Wu YV, Rosati RR, Brown PB. 1996 Effects of diets containing various levels of protein and ethanol coproducts from corn on growth of tilapia fry. [J Agric Food Chem] Vol.44 P.1491-1493 google doi
  • 21. Wu YV, Rosati RR, Brown PB. 1997 Use of corn-derived ethanol coproducts and synthetic lysine and tryptophan for growth of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry. [J Agric Food Chem] Vol.45 P.2174-2177 google doi
  • 22. Yigzaw Y, Gorton L, Akalu G, Solomon T. 2001 Fermentation of teff (Eragrostis tef), grass-pea (Lathyrus sativus) and their mixtures: aspects of nutrition and food safety. [Lathyrus Lathyrism Newsl] Vol.2 P.8-10 google
  • 23. Yuan X, Yang H, Zhou Y, Mao Y, Zhang T, Liu Y. 2006 The influence of diets containing dried bivalve feces and/or powdered algae on growth and energy distribution in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). [Aquaculture] Vol.256 P.457-467 google doi
  • [Table 1.] Proximate composition and essential amino acid (% in protein) of the ingredient of experimental diets
    Proximate composition and essential amino acid (% in protein) of the ingredient of experimental diets
  • [Table 2.] Ingredient and composition of the experimental diets
    Ingredient and composition of the experimental diets
  • [Table 3.] Growth performance of juvenile sea cucumber (initial average body weight, 2.1 ± 0.02 g) fed the experimental diets for 22 weeks*
    Growth performance of juvenile sea cucumber (initial average body weight, 2.1 ± 0.02 g) fed the experimental diets for 22 weeks*
  • [Table 4.] Proximate (%) and essential amino acid composition of the whole body in juvenile sea cucumber fed the experimental diets for 22 weeks*
    Proximate (%) and essential amino acid composition of the whole body in juvenile sea cucumber fed the experimental diets for 22 weeks*