A Development of 3-D Resolution Algorithm for Aircraft Collision Avoidance

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  • ABSTRACT

    Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) is designed to enhance safety in aircraft operations, by reducing the incidences of mid-air collision between aircraft. The current version of TCAS provides only vertical resolution advisory to the pilots, if an aircraft’s collision with another is predicted to be imminent, while efforts to include horizontal resolution advisory have been made, as well. This paper introduces a collision resolution algorithm, which includes both vertical and horizontal avoidance maneuvers of aircraft. Also, the paper compares between the performance of the proposed algorithm and that of algorithms with only vertical or horizontal avoidance maneuver of aircraft.


  • KEYWORD

    Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) , Traffic Advisory (TA) , Resolution Advisory (RA) , Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) , Closest Point of Approach (CPA) , Vertical Resolution , Horizontal Resolution , 3-Dimensional Resolution

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  • [Table 1.] Criterion of TA and RA (from reference
    Criterion of TA and RA (from reference
  • [Fig. 1.] State Diagram of RA (from reference [10])
    State Diagram of RA (from reference [10])
  • [Fig. 2.] Separation Standards
    Separation Standards
  • [Fig. 3.] 3-Dimension Resolution Flow Chart
    3-Dimension Resolution Flow Chart
  • [Fig. 4.] Situation 1 of pair of aircraft
    Situation 1 of pair of aircraft
  • [Fig. 5.] Situation 2 of pair of aircraft
    Situation 2 of pair of aircraft
  • [Table 2.] Initial condition of Situation 1
    Initial condition of Situation 1
  • [Table 3.] Initial condition of Situation 2
    Initial condition of Situation 2
  • [Fig. 6.] Vertical resolution 3-D View
    Vertical resolution 3-D View
  • [Fig. 7.] Altitude of both aircraft
    Altitude of both aircraft
  • [Fig. 8.] Range of both aircraft
    Range of both aircraft
  • [Fig. 9.] Required time of resolution
    Required time of resolution
  • [Fig. 10.] Vertical resolution 3-D View
    Vertical resolution 3-D View
  • [Fig. 11.] Altitude of both aircraft
    Altitude of both aircraft
  • [Fig. 12.] Range of both aircraft
    Range of both aircraft
  • [Fig. 13.] Required time of resolution
    Required time of resolution
  • [Fig. 14.] Horizontal resolution 3-D view
    Horizontal resolution 3-D view
  • [Fig. 15.] Horizontal resolution top view
    Horizontal resolution top view
  • [Fig. 16.] Range of both aircraft
    Range of both aircraft
  • [Fig. 17.] Required time of resolution
    Required time of resolution
  • [Fig. 18.] Horizontal resolution 3-D view
    Horizontal resolution 3-D view
  • [Fig. 19.] Horizontal resolution top view
    Horizontal resolution top view
  • [Fig. 20.] Range of both aircraft
    Range of both aircraft
  • [Fig. 21.] Required time of resolution
    Required time of resolution
  • [Fig. 22.] 3-Dim. resolution 3-D view
    3-Dim. resolution 3-D view
  • [Fig. 23.] Altitude of both aircraft
    Altitude of both aircraft
  • [Fig. 24.] Range of both aircraft
    Range of both aircraft
  • [Fig. 25.] Required time of resolution
    Required time of resolution
  • [Fig. 26.] 3-Dim. resolution 3-D view
    3-Dim. resolution 3-D view
  • [Fig. 27.] Altitude of both aircraft
    Altitude of both aircraft
  • [Fig. 28.] Range of both aircraft
    Range of both aircraft
  • [Fig. 29.] Required time of resolution
    Required time of resolution
  • [Table 4.] Simulation result of situation 1
    Simulation result of situation 1
  • [Table 5.] Simulation result of situation 2
    Simulation result of situation 2
  • [Table 6.] Initial condition of simulation
    Initial condition of simulation
  • [Fig. 30.] 3-D view (Simulation t=100s)
    3-D view (Simulation t=100s)
  • [Fig. 31.] Top view (Simulation t=100s)
    Top view (Simulation t=100s)
  • [Fig. 32.] 3-D view (Simulation t=500s)
    3-D view (Simulation t=500s)
  • [Fig. 33.] Top view (Simulation t=500s)
    Top view (Simulation t=500s)
  • [Fig. 34.] 3-D view (Simulation t=100s)
    3-D view (Simulation t=100s)
  • [Fig. 35.] Top view (Simulation t=100s)
    Top view (Simulation t=100s)
  • [Fig. 36.] 3-D view (Simulation t=500s)
    3-D view (Simulation t=500s)
  • [Fig. 37.] Top view (Simulation t=500s)
    Top view (Simulation t=500s)
  • [Fig. 38.] 3-D view (Simulation t=100s)
    3-D view (Simulation t=100s)
  • [Fig. 39.] Top view (Simulation t=100s)
    Top view (Simulation t=100s)
  • [Fig. 40.] 3-D view (Simulation t=500s)
    3-D view (Simulation t=500s)
  • [Table 7.] Simulation result
    Simulation result
  • [Fig. 41.] Top view (Simulation t=500s)
    Top view (Simulation t=500s)