New Record of Two Marine Ciliates (Ciliophora: Spirotrichea) in South Korea

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  • ABSTRACT

    Two marine hypotrichous ciliates, Anteholosticha petzi and Ponturostyla enigmatica, were collected from the Yellow Sea and the Korea Strait, respectively, and described using live observation and protargol-impregnated specimens. Furthermore, the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of each was sequenced and compared to previously annotated sequences retrieved from the GenBank. Anteholosticha petzi is characterized by 3 frontal cirri (FC), 2 frontoterminal cirri (FTC), 8-12 transverse cirri (TC), 1 buccal cirrus (BC), 9-12 midventral pairs (MP), 3 bipolar dorsal kineties (DK), and 3 types of colorless cortical granules. Ponturostyla enigmatica is characterized by 8 FC, 5 ventral cirri (VC), 5-7 TC, 6-7 marginal rows (MR) on each side, 4 complete and 2-3 partial DK, and greenish cortical granules. This is the first identification and description of these 2 species, A. petzi and P. enigmatica, in South Korea.


  • KEYWORD

    Anteholosticha petzi , Ponturostyla enigmatica , marine ciliate , SSU rRNA gene

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  • [Table 1.] Morphometric characterization of Anteholosticha petzi
    Morphometric characterization of Anteholosticha petzi
  • [Fig. 1.] Morphology of Anteholosticha petzi from live (A-F, K, N-P) and protargol-impregnated (G-J, L, M) specimens. A, E, F, Ventral views of live specimens; B, D, Dorsal views: D, Distribution of type I (arrow), type II (arrowhead), type III (double arrowhead) cortical granules on the dorsal side; E, Type II cortical granules around marginal row (arrowhead) and midventral row (double arrowhead); F, Type II cortical granules around transverse cirri (arrow); C, Variable outline of the body; G-J, Views of protargol-impregnated specimens: G, H, Infraciliature of the ventral (G) and dorsal (H) side; I, FC including III/2 cirrus (double arrowheads), FTC (arrowheads), and BC (arrow); J, An additional basal body (arrowhead) with 3 bipolar dorsal kineties on the dorsal side. K-P, Drawing view of A. petzi: L, M, Infraciliature of the ventral (L) and dorsal (M) side; N, Variable body shape; O, arrangement of type II cortical granules and cirri on the ventral side; P, Distribution of type I (arrow), type II (arrowhead), type III (double arrowhead) cortical granules on the dorsal side. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; BC, buccal cirrus; DK, dorsal kineties; EM, endoral membrane; FC, frontal cirri; FTC, frontoterminal cirri; LMR, left marginal row; Ma, macronuclei; Mi, micronuclei; MP, midventral pairs; PM, paroral membrane; PTC, pretransverse cirri; RMR, right marginal row; TC, transverse cirri. Scale bars: A, B, G, H, K, L, N=50 μm.
    Morphology of Anteholosticha petzi from live (A-F, K, N-P) and protargol-impregnated (G-J, L, M) specimens. A, E, F, Ventral views of live specimens; B, D, Dorsal views: D, Distribution of type I (arrow), type II (arrowhead), type III (double arrowhead) cortical granules on the dorsal side; E, Type II cortical granules around marginal row (arrowhead) and midventral row (double arrowhead); F, Type II cortical granules around transverse cirri (arrow); C, Variable outline of the body; G-J, Views of protargol-impregnated specimens: G, H, Infraciliature of the ventral (G) and dorsal (H) side; I, FC including III/2 cirrus (double arrowheads), FTC (arrowheads), and BC (arrow); J, An additional basal body (arrowhead) with 3 bipolar dorsal kineties on the dorsal side. K-P, Drawing view of A. petzi: L, M, Infraciliature of the ventral (L) and dorsal (M) side; N, Variable body shape; O, arrangement of type II cortical granules and cirri on the ventral side; P, Distribution of type I (arrow), type II (arrowhead), type III (double arrowhead) cortical granules on the dorsal side. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; BC, buccal cirrus; DK, dorsal kineties; EM, endoral membrane; FC, frontal cirri; FTC, frontoterminal cirri; LMR, left marginal row; Ma, macronuclei; Mi, micronuclei; MP, midventral pairs; PM, paroral membrane; PTC, pretransverse cirri; RMR, right marginal row; TC, transverse cirri. Scale bars: A, B, G, H, K, L, N=50 μm.
  • [Table 2.] Kimura 2-parameter pairwise distances of SSU rRNA gene sequences among the genus Anteholosticha
    Kimura 2-parameter pairwise distances of SSU rRNA gene sequences among the genus Anteholosticha
  • [Fig. 2.] Morphology of Ponturostyla enigmatica from live (A-D, I-L, O, P) and protargol impregnated (E-H, M, N) specimens. A, C, I, Ventral views of live specimens: C, Greenish cortical granules arranged in lines between cirri (arrows); I, Arrowhead marking the contractile vacuole. B, Dorsal view of live specimen; D, Irregular distribution of greenish cortical granules on the dorsal side; E, F, Infraciliature of the ventral (E) and dorsal (F) side: F, Arrow marking shortened dorsal kineties; G, 5 (3+2) ventral cirri (arrowheads) and 5 transverse cirri (double arrowhead); H, 8 frontal cirri (arrowhead). J-P, Drawing view of P. enigmatica: J-L, The ventral (J, K) and dorsal (L) view of live specimen; J, Arrowhead indicating the contractile vacuole; M, N, Infraciliature of the ventral (M) and dorsal (N) side; O, P, Arrangement of cirri and cortical granules of the ventral (O) and dorsal (P) side. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; DK, dorsal kineties; EM, endoral membrane; FC, frontal cirri; LMR, left marginal row; Ma, macronuclei; Mi, micronuclei; PM, paroral membrane; RMR, right marginal row; TC, transverse cirri; VC, ventral cirri. Scale bars: A, B, E, F, J, L, N=100 μm.
    Morphology of Ponturostyla enigmatica from live (A-D, I-L, O, P) and protargol impregnated (E-H, M, N) specimens. A, C, I, Ventral views of live specimens: C, Greenish cortical granules arranged in lines between cirri (arrows); I, Arrowhead marking the contractile vacuole. B, Dorsal view of live specimen; D, Irregular distribution of greenish cortical granules on the dorsal side; E, F, Infraciliature of the ventral (E) and dorsal (F) side: F, Arrow marking shortened dorsal kineties; G, 5 (3+2) ventral cirri (arrowheads) and 5 transverse cirri (double arrowhead); H, 8 frontal cirri (arrowhead). J-P, Drawing view of P. enigmatica: J-L, The ventral (J, K) and dorsal (L) view of live specimen; J, Arrowhead indicating the contractile vacuole; M, N, Infraciliature of the ventral (M) and dorsal (N) side; O, P, Arrangement of cirri and cortical granules of the ventral (O) and dorsal (P) side. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; DK, dorsal kineties; EM, endoral membrane; FC, frontal cirri; LMR, left marginal row; Ma, macronuclei; Mi, micronuclei; PM, paroral membrane; RMR, right marginal row; TC, transverse cirri; VC, ventral cirri. Scale bars: A, B, E, F, J, L, N=100 μm.
  • [Table 3.] Morphometric characterization of Ponturostyla enigmatica
    Morphometric characterization of Ponturostyla enigmatica
  • [Table 4.] Kimura 2-parameter pairwise distances of SSU rRNA gene sequences among the family Oxytrichidae
    Kimura 2-parameter pairwise distances of SSU rRNA gene sequences among the family Oxytrichidae