Two Oxytrichid Ciliates, Cyrtohymena primicirrata and Oxytricha granulifera (Ciliophora: Sporadotrichida: Oxytrichidae) Unknown from Korea

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  • ABSTRACT

    This study reports the discovery of two oxytrichid ciliates, Cyrtohymena primicirrata (Berger and Foissner, 1987) and Oxytricha granulifera Foissner and Adam, 1983, in Jeju Island, Korea. The morphology of the two species was studied using live observation and protargol impregnation. These species are described as follows: Cyrtohymena primicirrata has a body size in live specimens 90-140×40-60 μm, length : width ratio 2.3 : 1 on average; elongated and slender obovate in outline of body. Cortical granules are shiny yellow on the ventral and dorsal side. Adoral zone of membranelles (AZM) is covering about 48% of the cell with about 38 adoral membranelles. Arrangement of undulating membranes is ordinary Cyrtohymena pattern. Dorsal kineties is six rows with 5 μm long bristles. Oxytricha granulifera has a body size in live specimens 90-115×25-38 μm, length : width ratio 3.31 on average; elongated ellipsoidal in outline of body. Cortical granules are colorless on the ventral and dorsal side. AZM is covering 28% of the cell length in vivo with about 24 adoral membranelles. Arrangement of undulating membranes is Oxytricha pattern. Dorsal kineties is five rows with about 3 μm long dorsal bristles.


  • KEYWORD

    Cyrtohymena , Oxytricha , morphology , Jeju Island , freshwater

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  • [Table 1.] Morphometric data on Cyrtohymena primicirrata (C.p.) and Oxytricha granulifera (O.g.)
    Morphometric data on Cyrtohymena primicirrata (C.p.) and Oxytricha granulifera (O.g.)
  • [Fig. 1.] Morphology and infraciliature of Cyrtohymena primicirrata from live specimens (A-C) and after protargol impregnation (D, E). A, Ventral view of live specimen; B, Cortical granules on dorsal side; C, Cortical granules on ventral side; D, Ventral view of general infraciliature; E, Dorsal kineties and nuclear apparatus. CV, contractile vacuole. Scale bar: A=50 μm.
    Morphology and infraciliature of Cyrtohymena primicirrata from live specimens (A-C) and after protargol impregnation (D, E). A, Ventral view of live specimen; B, Cortical granules on dorsal side; C, Cortical granules on ventral side; D, Ventral view of general infraciliature; E, Dorsal kineties and nuclear apparatus. CV, contractile vacuole. Scale bar: A=50 μm.
  • [Fig. 2.] Morphology of Cyrtohymena primicirrata from live specimens. A, Ventral view at low magnification; B, Ventral view of live specimen, arrowheads show crystals; C, Cortical granules on ventral side; D, Cortical granules rows (arrows) on dorsal side; E, Buccal region (star); F, Crystals (arrows); G, Cortical granules (arrows) beside marginal cirri (arrowheads); H, Macro and micronuclei; I, Food vacuoles (arrowheads), macronucleus (Ma) and contractile vacuole (CV). PM, paroral membrane. Scale bars: A=50 μm, C, D, F=10 μm, H=20 μm.
    Morphology of Cyrtohymena primicirrata from live specimens. A, Ventral view at low magnification; B, Ventral view of live specimen, arrowheads show crystals; C, Cortical granules on ventral side; D, Cortical granules rows (arrows) on dorsal side; E, Buccal region (star); F, Crystals (arrows); G, Cortical granules (arrows) beside marginal cirri (arrowheads); H, Macro and micronuclei; I, Food vacuoles (arrowheads), macronucleus (Ma) and contractile vacuole (CV). PM, paroral membrane. Scale bars: A=50 μm, C, D, F=10 μm, H=20 μm.
  • [Fig. 3.] Morphology and infraciliature of Cyrtohymena primicirrata after protargol impregnation. A, Ventral view of general infraciliature; B, Buccal region (arrow); C, Cortical granules (arrows) after protargol impregnation; D, Dorsal kineties (arrows) and caudal cirri; E, Food vacuoles, macronuclear and micronuclear nodules; F, Food vacuoles. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; CC, caudal cirri; DK, dorsal kinety; EM, endoral membrane; FC, forntal cirri; FV, food vacuole; LMR, left marginal cirral row; Ma, macronucleus; Mi, micronucleus; PM, paroral membrane; RMR, right marginal cirral row; TC, transverse cirri. Scale bars: A=50 μm, E=20 μm.
    Morphology and infraciliature of Cyrtohymena primicirrata after protargol impregnation. A, Ventral view of general infraciliature; B, Buccal region (arrow); C, Cortical granules (arrows) after protargol impregnation; D, Dorsal kineties (arrows) and caudal cirri; E, Food vacuoles, macronuclear and micronuclear nodules; F, Food vacuoles. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; CC, caudal cirri; DK, dorsal kinety; EM, endoral membrane; FC, forntal cirri; FV, food vacuole; LMR, left marginal cirral row; Ma, macronucleus; Mi, micronucleus; PM, paroral membrane; RMR, right marginal cirral row; TC, transverse cirri. Scale bars: A=50 μm, E=20 μm.
  • [Fig. 4.] Morphology and infraciliature of Oxytricha granulifera from live specimens (A, B) and after protargol impregnation (C, D). A, Ventral view of live specimen; B, Cortical granules on dorsal side; C, Ventral view of general infraciliature; D, Dorsal kineties and nuclear apparatus. FTC, fronto-terminal cirrus. Scale bars: A-D=50 μm.
    Morphology and infraciliature of Oxytricha granulifera from live specimens (A, B) and after protargol impregnation (C, D). A, Ventral view of live specimen; B, Cortical granules on dorsal side; C, Ventral view of general infraciliature; D, Dorsal kineties and nuclear apparatus. FTC, fronto-terminal cirrus. Scale bars: A-D=50 μm.
  • [Fig. 5.] Morphology of Oxytricha granulifera from live specimens. A, Ventral view at low magnification; B, Cirral apparatus on ventral side; C, Nuclear apparatus and contractile vacuole; D, Cortical granules (arrows) on ventral side; E, Cortical granules, arrows denote dorsal bristles; F, Cytoplasms, crystals (double arrows) and food vacuoles. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; CC, caudal cirri (arrows in F); CV, contractile vacuole; FV, food vacuole; FVC, front-ventral cirrus; LMR, left marginal cirral row; Ma, macronucleus; Mi, micronucleus; RMR, right marginal cirral row; TC, transverse cirri. Scale bars: A=50 μm, E=10 μm.
    Morphology of Oxytricha granulifera from live specimens. A, Ventral view at low magnification; B, Cirral apparatus on ventral side; C, Nuclear apparatus and contractile vacuole; D, Cortical granules (arrows) on ventral side; E, Cortical granules, arrows denote dorsal bristles; F, Cytoplasms, crystals (double arrows) and food vacuoles. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; CC, caudal cirri (arrows in F); CV, contractile vacuole; FV, food vacuole; FVC, front-ventral cirrus; LMR, left marginal cirral row; Ma, macronucleus; Mi, micronucleus; RMR, right marginal cirral row; TC, transverse cirri. Scale bars: A=50 μm, E=10 μm.
  • [Fig. 6.] Morphology and infraciliature of Oxytricha granulifera after protargol impregnation. A, Ventral view of general infraciliature; B, The arrangement of frontoventral cirri; C, Caudal cirri; D, Nuclear apparatus, arrow denotes various position of pre-ventral cirri; E, Dorsal kineties (arrows). AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; CC, caudal cirri; FC, frontal cirri; LMR, left marginal cirral row; Ma, macronucleus; Mi, micronucleus; PTC, pretransverse cirrus; RMR, right marginal cirral row; TC, transverse cirri. Scale bar: A=50 μm.
    Morphology and infraciliature of Oxytricha granulifera after protargol impregnation. A, Ventral view of general infraciliature; B, The arrangement of frontoventral cirri; C, Caudal cirri; D, Nuclear apparatus, arrow denotes various position of pre-ventral cirri; E, Dorsal kineties (arrows). AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; CC, caudal cirri; FC, frontal cirri; LMR, left marginal cirral row; Ma, macronucleus; Mi, micronucleus; PTC, pretransverse cirrus; RMR, right marginal cirral row; TC, transverse cirri. Scale bar: A=50 μm.