Morphological Redescriptions of Three Condylostoma Ciliates (Heterotrichida: Condylostomatidae) New to Korea

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  • ABSTRACT

    Heterotrichous ciliates were isolated from marine and brackish habitats in Korea, and their morphology, infraciliature and morphometrical characters were investigated using silver impregnated methods. These three Condylostoma species were identified as Condylostoma curva Burkovsky, 1970, C. minutum Bullington, 1940 and C. spatiosum Ozaki and Yagiu in Yagiu, 1944. The species of Condylostoma based on morphology are highly variable in most of characters and distinguished as following. Condylostoma curva is oval to elongate ellipsoidal, size about 245×100 μm in vivo, and conspicuously dark greenish brown with cortical granules on their surface, buccal cavity relatively large about 40% of body length, 5-11 macronuclear nodules, 4-8 frontal cirri serially arranged and 22-38 somatic kineties. Condylostoma minutum is elongate ellipsoidal and the size about 310×55 μm in vivo, buccal field about 35% of body length, 12-20 macronuclear nodules, adoral zone consisted of 82-107 membranelles, large and long one frontal cirrus and 38-44 somatic kineties. Condylostoma spatiosum is large elongate ellipsoidal, size about 670×105 μm in vivo, buccal cavity about 25% of body length, 11-25 macronuclear nodules, 111-144 adoral membranelles, membrane-like 2 frontal cirri, 49-74 somatic kineties. These three Condylostoma species are described here for the first time in Korea.


  • KEYWORD

    Condylostoma , marine , brackish water , redescription , heterotrichs , morphology , ciliate

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  • [Table 1.] Morphometric data on Condylostoma curva, C. minutum, and C. spatiosum
    Morphometric data on Condylostoma curva, C. minutum, and C. spatiosum
  • [Fig. 1.] Morphology and infraciliature of Condylostoma curva from live specimens (A, D, F, G) and after protargol impregnation (B, C, E). A, Ventral view of a typical individual; B, Ventral view of impregnated specimen; C, Dorsal view of impregnated specimen; D, Varied body shapes and macronuclear patterns; E, Ventral view of buccal field; F, Pattern of cortical granules; G, Lateral view of cortical granules. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; CG, cortical granule; FC, frontal cirrus; FV, food vacuole; Ma, macronucleus; PM, paroral membrane; SK, somatic kineties. Scale bars: A, C=100 μm, F=5 μm.
    Morphology and infraciliature of Condylostoma curva from live specimens (A, D, F, G) and after protargol impregnation (B, C, E). A, Ventral view of a typical individual; B, Ventral view of impregnated specimen; C, Dorsal view of impregnated specimen; D, Varied body shapes and macronuclear patterns; E, Ventral view of buccal field; F, Pattern of cortical granules; G, Lateral view of cortical granules. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; CG, cortical granule; FC, frontal cirrus; FV, food vacuole; Ma, macronucleus; PM, paroral membrane; SK, somatic kineties. Scale bars: A, C=100 μm, F=5 μm.
  • [Fig. 2.] Microphotographs of Condylostoma curva from live specimens (A-H) and after protargol impregnation (I-N). A, Ventral view of a typical individual; B, Moniliform macronuclear nodules (triangular arrowheads) and cytoplasmic inclusion (arrowheads); C, Buccal field (triangular arrowhead); D, Frontal cirri (arrowheads); E, Buccal field to indicate the stripes of inner wall (triangular arrowheads); F, Proximal end of adoral zone of membranelles (arrowhead); G, Pattern of cortical granules (arrowhead); H, Lateral view of cortical granules (arrowhead); I, Ventral side view; J, Impregnated macronuclear nodules (triangular arrowheads); K, Paroral membrane (triangular arrowhead) and adoral zone of membranelles (arrowhead); L, Suture (arrowheads); M, Frontal cirri (arrowheads); N, Impregnated cortical granules. Scale bars: A, I=100 μm, G, N=5 μm.
    Microphotographs of Condylostoma curva from live specimens (A-H) and after protargol impregnation (I-N). A, Ventral view of a typical individual; B, Moniliform macronuclear nodules (triangular arrowheads) and cytoplasmic inclusion (arrowheads); C, Buccal field (triangular arrowhead); D, Frontal cirri (arrowheads); E, Buccal field to indicate the stripes of inner wall (triangular arrowheads); F, Proximal end of adoral zone of membranelles (arrowhead); G, Pattern of cortical granules (arrowhead); H, Lateral view of cortical granules (arrowhead); I, Ventral side view; J, Impregnated macronuclear nodules (triangular arrowheads); K, Paroral membrane (triangular arrowhead) and adoral zone of membranelles (arrowhead); L, Suture (arrowheads); M, Frontal cirri (arrowheads); N, Impregnated cortical granules. Scale bars: A, I=100 μm, G, N=5 μm.
  • [Fig. 3.] Morphology and infraciliature of Condylostoma minutum from live specimens (A, C-E) and after protargol impregnation (B, F, G). A, Ventral view of a typical individual; B, Ventral view of buccal field; C, The various body shape and macronuclear nodules pattern; D, Lateral view of cortical granules; E, Ventral view of cortical granules; F, Ventral view of impregnated specimen; G, Dorsal view of impregnated specimen. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; CG, cortical granule; FC, frontal cirrus; FV, food vacuole; Ma, macronucleus; PM, paroral membrane; SK, somatic kineties. Scale bars: A, G=100 μm, E=5 μm.
    Morphology and infraciliature of Condylostoma minutum from live specimens (A, C-E) and after protargol impregnation (B, F, G). A, Ventral view of a typical individual; B, Ventral view of buccal field; C, The various body shape and macronuclear nodules pattern; D, Lateral view of cortical granules; E, Ventral view of cortical granules; F, Ventral view of impregnated specimen; G, Dorsal view of impregnated specimen. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; CG, cortical granule; FC, frontal cirrus; FV, food vacuole; Ma, macronucleus; PM, paroral membrane; SK, somatic kineties. Scale bars: A, G=100 μm, E=5 μm.
  • [Fig. 4.] Microphotographs of Condylostoma minutum from live specimens (A-H) and after protargol impregnation (I-M). A, Ventral view of a typical individual; B, Moniliform macronuclear nodules (trianglular arrowheads); C, Paroral membrane (trianglular arrowhead); D, Food vacuole (trianglular arrowhead); E, Frontal cirrus (trianglular arrowhead); F, H, Cortical granules; G, Striated inner wall on buccal cavity (arrows); I, Ventral side view; J, Moniliform macronucleus (trianglular arrowheads); K, Suture of posterior end (trianglular arrowheads); L, To show adoral zone of membranelles (arrow), frontal cirrus (trianglular arrowhead), paroral membrane (arrowhead); M, Impregnated cortical granules between somatic kineties. Scale bars: A, I=100 μm, F, H, M=5 μm.
    Microphotographs of Condylostoma minutum from live specimens (A-H) and after protargol impregnation (I-M). A, Ventral view of a typical individual; B, Moniliform macronuclear nodules (trianglular arrowheads); C, Paroral membrane (trianglular arrowhead); D, Food vacuole (trianglular arrowhead); E, Frontal cirrus (trianglular arrowhead); F, H, Cortical granules; G, Striated inner wall on buccal cavity (arrows); I, Ventral side view; J, Moniliform macronucleus (trianglular arrowheads); K, Suture of posterior end (trianglular arrowheads); L, To show adoral zone of membranelles (arrow), frontal cirrus (trianglular arrowhead), paroral membrane (arrowhead); M, Impregnated cortical granules between somatic kineties. Scale bars: A, I=100 μm, F, H, M=5 μm.
  • [Fig. 5.] Morphology and infraciliature of Condylostoma spatiosum from live specimens (A, D-G) and after protargol impregnation (B, C). A, Ventral view of a typical individual; B, Ventral view of impregnated specimen; C, Ventral view of buccal field; D, Various body shape and macronuclear nodules pattern; E, Infraciliature of somatic dikinetids; F, Pattern of cortical granules; G, Lateral view of cortical granules. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; FC, frontal cirrus; FV, food vacuole; Ma, macronucleus; PM, paroral membrane; SK, somatic kineties. Scale bars: A=200 μm, B=100 μm, F=5 μm.
    Morphology and infraciliature of Condylostoma spatiosum from live specimens (A, D-G) and after protargol impregnation (B, C). A, Ventral view of a typical individual; B, Ventral view of impregnated specimen; C, Ventral view of buccal field; D, Various body shape and macronuclear nodules pattern; E, Infraciliature of somatic dikinetids; F, Pattern of cortical granules; G, Lateral view of cortical granules. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; FC, frontal cirrus; FV, food vacuole; Ma, macronucleus; PM, paroral membrane; SK, somatic kineties. Scale bars: A=200 μm, B=100 μm, F=5 μm.
  • [Fig. 6.] Microphotographs of Condylostoma spatiosum from live specimens (A-F) and after protargol impregnation (G-K). A, Ventral side view; B, Moniliform macronuclear nodules; C, Buccal field to indicate the stripes of inner wall (arrowhead) and the cytopharynx (arrow); D, Location of frontal cirri (arrowheads); E, Pattern of cortical granules; F, Lateral view of cortical granules; G, Ventral side view in impregnated specimen; H, Ventral view of frontal cirri (arrowhead), paroral membrane (arrow) and cytopharynx (triangular arrowhead); I, Location of frontal cirri (arrowheads); J, Macronuclear nodules and threads; K, Cortical granules in impregnated specimen. Scale bars: A=200 μm, Inset in A=200 μm, E, K=5 μm, G=100 μm.
    Microphotographs of Condylostoma spatiosum from live specimens (A-F) and after protargol impregnation (G-K). A, Ventral side view; B, Moniliform macronuclear nodules; C, Buccal field to indicate the stripes of inner wall (arrowhead) and the cytopharynx (arrow); D, Location of frontal cirri (arrowheads); E, Pattern of cortical granules; F, Lateral view of cortical granules; G, Ventral side view in impregnated specimen; H, Ventral view of frontal cirri (arrowhead), paroral membrane (arrow) and cytopharynx (triangular arrowhead); I, Location of frontal cirri (arrowheads); J, Macronuclear nodules and threads; K, Cortical granules in impregnated specimen. Scale bars: A=200 μm, Inset in A=200 μm, E, K=5 μm, G=100 μm.
  • [Fig. 7.] A-F, M, Condylostoma curva Burkovsky, 1970 (A, from Kahl, 1932; B, from Dragesco J, Dragesco-Kern?is A, 1986; C, from Burkovsky, 1970; D-F, from Song et al., 2003); M, The apparatus of frontal cirri (from Song et al., 2003); G-L, N, C. minutum Bullington, 1940 (G, from Bullington, 1940; H, I, Chen et al., 2007); N, The apparatus of frontal cirrus (from Chen et al., 2007); JL, O, C. spatiosum Ozaki and Yagiu in Yagiu, 1944 (J, from Ozaki and Yagiu in Yagiu, 1944; K, L, from Shao et al., 2006); O, The apparatus of frontal cirri (from Chen et al., 2007). Scale bars: A-C, E, F=50 μm, D, G, I, L=100 μm, K=200 μm.
    A-F, M, Condylostoma curva Burkovsky, 1970 (A, from Kahl, 1932; B, from Dragesco J, Dragesco-Kern?is A, 1986; C, from Burkovsky, 1970; D-F, from Song et al., 2003); M, The apparatus of frontal cirri (from Song et al., 2003); G-L, N, C. minutum Bullington, 1940 (G, from Bullington, 1940; H, I, Chen et al., 2007); N, The apparatus of frontal cirrus (from Chen et al., 2007); JL, O, C. spatiosum Ozaki and Yagiu in Yagiu, 1944 (J, from Ozaki and Yagiu in Yagiu, 1944; K, L, from Shao et al., 2006); O, The apparatus of frontal cirri (from Chen et al., 2007). Scale bars: A-C, E, F=50 μm, D, G, I, L=100 μm, K=200 μm.
  • [Table 2.] Comparisons of previous studies of Condylostoma curva, C. minutum, and C. spatiosum
    Comparisons of previous studies of Condylostoma curva, C. minutum, and C. spatiosum