New Records of Two Stichotrichid Ciliates, Afroamphisiella multinucleata and Pseudokahliella marina (Ciliophora: Spirotrichea: Stichotrichida) from Korea

  • cc icon
  • ABSTRACT

    Two stichotrichid ciliates, collected from marine waters in Jeju Island, were identified as Afroamphisiella multinucleata Foissner et al., 2002 and Pseudokahliella marina (Foissner et al., 1982) Berger et al., 1985. They are recorded for the first time in Korea. The descriptions are based on examinations of living as well as protargol- impregnated specimens. These species are characterized as follows. Afroamphisiella multinucleata has a body size in vivo of 70-95×20-35 μm; elongate rectangular in shape; contractile vacuole located slightly above mid-body. The adoral zone is bipartited into 3 distal and 13-17 proximal membranelles and occupies 28-35% of the body length. The frontal row comprises 1-4 cirri and one buccal cirrus. The amphisiellid median cirral row is composed of 14-21 cirri, 10-19 left marginal cirri, and 21-30 right marginal cirri. Cortical granules are yellowish. 11-20 globular/ellipsoidal macronuclear nodules arrange proximally along the cell margins. Pseudokahliella marina has a body size in vivo of 110-195×40-110 μm and broadly elliptical in shape. The adoral zone of the membranelles occupies 50-60% of the body length, and is composed of 41-70 membranelles. A prominent frontal scutum is present. The contractile vacuole is located below the mid-body. There are 11- 13 frontoventral rows, including marginal rows. Caudal cirri and transverse cirri are absent. Three invariable non-fragmented bipolar dorsal kineties are present. The left and right marginal rows are composed of 22-35 and 28-40 cirri, respectively. Colourless cortical granules are present. 8-11 spherical/ellipsoidal macronuclear nodules are connected with each other by thread-like tructures, forming an inverted C-shape.


  • KEYWORD

    Afroamphisiella , Pseudokahliella , hypotrichs , morphology , marine , Jeju Island , Korea

  • 1. Berger H 1999 Monograph of the Oxytrichidae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). [Monographiae Biologicae] Vol.78 P.1-1079 google
  • 2. Berger H 2001 Catalogue of ciliate names 1. Hypotrichs. P.1-206 google
  • 3. Berger H 2006 Monograph of the Urostyloidea (Ciliophora, Hypotricha). [Monographiae Biologicae] Vol.85 P.1-1303 google
  • 4. Berger H 2008 Monograph of the Amphisiellidae and Trachelostylidae (Ciliophora, Hypotricha). [Monographiae Biologicae] Vol.88 P.1-737 google
  • 5. Berger H 2011 Monograph of the Gonostomatidae and Kahliellidae (Ciliophora, Hypotricha). [Monographie Biologicae] Vol.90 P.1-741 google
  • 6. Berger H, Foissner W, Adam H 1985 Morphological variation and comparative analysis of morphogenesis in Parakahliella macrostoma (Foissner, 1982) nov. gen. and Histriculus muscorum (Kahl, 1932), (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida). [Protistologica] Vol.21 P.295-311 google
  • 7. Borror AC, Evans FR 1979 Cladotricha and phylogeny in the suborder Stichotrichina (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida). [Journal of Protozoology] Vol.26 P.51-55 google
  • 8. Corliss JO 1979 The ciliated protozoa: characterization, classification and guide to the literature. P.1-455 google
  • 9. Faure-Fremiet E 1961 Remarques sur la morphologie comparee et la systematique des ciliata Hypotrichida. [Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l’Academie des Sciences, Paris] Vol.252 P.3515-3519 google
  • 10. Foissner W 1992 Protargol methods. In: Protocols in protozoology (Eds., Lee JJ, Soldo AT). P.C6.1-C6.8 google
  • 11. Foissner W 1997 Soil ciliates (Protozoa: Ciliophora) from evergreen rain forests of Australia, South America and Costa Rica: diversity and description of new species. [Biology and Fertility of Soils] Vol.25 P.317-339 google
  • 12. Foissner W, Adam H, Foissner I 1982 Morphologie und Infraciliatur von Bryometopus pseudochilodon Kahl, 1932, Balantidioides dragescoi nov. spec. und Kahliella marina nov. spec. und Revision des Genus Balantioides Penard, 1930 (Protozoa, Ciliophora). [Protistologica] Vol.18 P.211-225 google
  • 13. Foissner W, Agatha S, Berger H 2002 Soil ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from Namibia (Southwest Africa), with emphasis on two contrasting environments, the Etosha region and the Namib Desert. [Denisia] Vol.5 P.1-1459 google
  • 14. Hu X, Song W 2003 Redescription of the morphology and divisional morphogenesis of the marine hypotrich Pseudokahliella marina (Foissner et al., 1982) from scallop-culture water of North China. [Journal of Natural History] Vol.37 P.2033-2043 google
  • 15. Lee JJ, Small EB, Lynn DH, Bovee EC 1985 Some techniques for collecting, cultivating and observing protozoa. In: An illustrated guide to the protozoa (Eds., Lee JJ, Hunter SH, Bovee EC). P.1-7 google
  • 16. Lynn DH 2008 The ciliated protozoa: characterization, classification, and guide to the literature. P.1-605 google
  • 17. Lynn DH, Small EB 2002 Phylum Ciliophora. In: An illustrated guide to the protozoa: organisms traditionally referred to as protozoa, or newly discovered groups. Vol. 1 (Eds., Lee JJK, Leedale GF, Bradbury PC). P.371-656 google
  • 18. Shin MK 1994 Systematics of Korean hypotrichs (Ciliophora, Polyhymenophora, Hypotrichida) and molecular evolution of hypotrichs. P.1-270 google
  • 19. Song W, Warren A, Hu X 2009 Free-living ciliates in the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China. P.1-518 google
  • 20. Song W, Zhao Y, Xu K, Hu X, Gong J 2003 Pathogenic protozoa in mariculture. P.1-483 google
  • 21. Wilbert N 1975 Eine Verbesserte Technik der Protargolimpragnation f?r Ciliaten. [Mikrokosmos] Vol.64 P.171-179 google
  • [Fig. 1.] Afroamphisiella multinucleata from live (A-E) and protargol impregnated specimens (F, G). A, Ventral view of typical cell; B, C, Arrangement of canals (arrow) and cortical granules on ventral and dorsal sides; D, Flattened lateral view; E, Cortical granules on dorsal side; F, Somatic and oral infraciliature of ventral side; G, Dorsal kineties and nuclear apparatus. ACR, amphisiellid median cirral row; A(Z)M, adoral (zone of) membranelles; BC, buccal cirrus; DB, dorsal bristles; EM, endoral membrane; FC, frontal cirri; FRC, frontotal-row cirri (dotted box); LMC, left marginal cirri; Ma, macronuclei; Mi, micronuclei; PM, paroral membrane; RMC, right marginal cirri. Scale bars: A, G=50 μm, E=5 μm.
    Afroamphisiella multinucleata from live (A-E) and protargol impregnated specimens (F, G). A, Ventral view of typical cell; B, C, Arrangement of canals (arrow) and cortical granules on ventral and dorsal sides; D, Flattened lateral view; E, Cortical granules on dorsal side; F, Somatic and oral infraciliature of ventral side; G, Dorsal kineties and nuclear apparatus. ACR, amphisiellid median cirral row; A(Z)M, adoral (zone of) membranelles; BC, buccal cirrus; DB, dorsal bristles; EM, endoral membrane; FC, frontal cirri; FRC, frontotal-row cirri (dotted box); LMC, left marginal cirri; Ma, macronuclei; Mi, micronuclei; PM, paroral membrane; RMC, right marginal cirri. Scale bars: A, G=50 μm, E=5 μm.
  • [Fig. 2.] Photomicrographs of Afroamphisiella multinucleata from live specimens. A, Ventral view of typical cell; B, Somatic ciliature and end of right marginal row (arrowhead) on ventral side; C, Arrangement of cortical granules on dorsal side; D, Flattened lateral view; E, Showing flexible body; F, Contractile vacuole with collecting canal (arrowheads); G, Arrangement of cortical granules on ventral side; H, Dorsal bristles (arrowheads); I, Patterns of cortical granules on dorsal side; J, Fat granules of posterior part (arrowheads); K, Food vacuoles. Scale bar: A=50 μm.
    Photomicrographs of Afroamphisiella multinucleata from live specimens. A, Ventral view of typical cell; B, Somatic ciliature and end of right marginal row (arrowhead) on ventral side; C, Arrangement of cortical granules on dorsal side; D, Flattened lateral view; E, Showing flexible body; F, Contractile vacuole with collecting canal (arrowheads); G, Arrangement of cortical granules on ventral side; H, Dorsal bristles (arrowheads); I, Patterns of cortical granules on dorsal side; J, Fat granules of posterior part (arrowheads); K, Food vacuoles. Scale bar: A=50 μm.
  • [Fig. 3.] Photomicrographs of Afroamphisiella multinucleata after protargol impregnation. A, Ventral view of typical cell to indicate macronuclei (arrowheads) and micronuclei (arrows); B, Dorsal view to indicate dorsal kineties (arrowheads); C, Three frontal cirri (arrowheads); D, Frontal row cirri (arrowheads); E, Buccal cirrus (arrowhead) and undulating membranes (arrow); F, Right marginal row extending to posterior end of cell (arrowhead). Scale bar: A=50 μm.
    Photomicrographs of Afroamphisiella multinucleata after protargol impregnation. A, Ventral view of typical cell to indicate macronuclei (arrowheads) and micronuclei (arrows); B, Dorsal view to indicate dorsal kineties (arrowheads); C, Three frontal cirri (arrowheads); D, Frontal row cirri (arrowheads); E, Buccal cirrus (arrowhead) and undulating membranes (arrow); F, Right marginal row extending to posterior end of cell (arrowhead). Scale bar: A=50 μm.
  • [Table 1.] Morphometric data of Afroamphisiella multinucleata
    Morphometric data of Afroamphisiella multinucleata
  • [Table 2.] Comparisons between different populations of Afroamphisiella multinucleata and A. abdita
    Comparisons between different populations of Afroamphisiella multinucleata and A. abdita
  • [Fig. 4.] Pseudokahliella marina from live (A-E) and protargol impregnated specimens (F, G). A, Ventral view of typical cell; B, Lateral view showing dorsoventrally flattened body shape; C, Elongated elliptical body shape; D, Arrangement of cortical granules and pore on dorsal sides; E, Ejected granules; F, Somatic and oral infraciliature of ventral side; G, Dorsal kineties and nuclear apparatus. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; BL, buccal lip; DK, dorsal kineties; EM, endoral membrane; FC, frontal cirri; FS, frontal scutum; FVC, frontoventral cirri; LMC, left marginal cirri; Ma, macronuclei; Mi, micronuclei; PF, pharyngeal fiber; PM, paroral membrane; RMC, right marginal cirri. Scale bars: A, G=50 μm, D, E=5 μm.
    Pseudokahliella marina from live (A-E) and protargol impregnated specimens (F, G). A, Ventral view of typical cell; B, Lateral view showing dorsoventrally flattened body shape; C, Elongated elliptical body shape; D, Arrangement of cortical granules and pore on dorsal sides; E, Ejected granules; F, Somatic and oral infraciliature of ventral side; G, Dorsal kineties and nuclear apparatus. AZM, adoral zone of membranelles; BL, buccal lip; DK, dorsal kineties; EM, endoral membrane; FC, frontal cirri; FS, frontal scutum; FVC, frontoventral cirri; LMC, left marginal cirri; Ma, macronuclei; Mi, micronuclei; PF, pharyngeal fiber; PM, paroral membrane; RMC, right marginal cirri. Scale bars: A, G=50 μm, D, E=5 μm.
  • [Fig. 5.] Photomicrographs of Pseudokahliella marina from live specimens. A, Ventral view of typical cell; B, Somatic ciliature and frontal scutum (arrowhead); C, Elongated elliptical body shape; D, E, Ventral side flat while dorsal side convex (arrowheads) from lateral and apical view; F, Contractile vacuole (arrowhead); G, Prominent buccal lip (arrowheads); H, Cytopharynx (arrowhead); I, Left marginal cirri (arrow), frontoventral cirri (arrowheads) and right marginal cirri (double arrowhead); J, Dorsal bristle (arrowhead), cortical granules (double arrowheads) and pore (arrows); K, Food vacuoles (arrowheads); L, Crystals distributed in cell (arrowheads); M, Shining fat globules concentrated on posterior portion (arrowheads); N, Yellowish crystals (arrowheads) and greenish fat globules (arrows); O, Ejected granules (arrowheads). Scale bars: A=50 μm, N, O=5 μm.
    Photomicrographs of Pseudokahliella marina from live specimens. A, Ventral view of typical cell; B, Somatic ciliature and frontal scutum (arrowhead); C, Elongated elliptical body shape; D, E, Ventral side flat while dorsal side convex (arrowheads) from lateral and apical view; F, Contractile vacuole (arrowhead); G, Prominent buccal lip (arrowheads); H, Cytopharynx (arrowhead); I, Left marginal cirri (arrow), frontoventral cirri (arrowheads) and right marginal cirri (double arrowhead); J, Dorsal bristle (arrowhead), cortical granules (double arrowheads) and pore (arrows); K, Food vacuoles (arrowheads); L, Crystals distributed in cell (arrowheads); M, Shining fat globules concentrated on posterior portion (arrowheads); N, Yellowish crystals (arrowheads) and greenish fat globules (arrows); O, Ejected granules (arrowheads). Scale bars: A=50 μm, N, O=5 μm.
  • [Fig. 6.] Photomicrographs of Pseudokahliella marina from protargol-impregnated specimens. A, Ventral view of typical cell; B, Three dorsal kineties (arrowheads); C, Three frontal cirri (arrowheads); D, Hook-like shape of adoral membranelles (arrowheads); E, Paroral (arrowhead) and endoral (arrow) membranes; F, Right marginal cirral row on dorsal side (arrowhead); G, Frontoventral cirral rows (arrowheads); H, Left marginal row (arrowhead); I, Macronucleus (arrowhead) with thread-like structure (double arrowhead) and micronucleus (arrow); J, Ingested diatom (arrowhead); K, Ingested Euplotes sp. (arrowhead). Scale bars: A=100 μm, I=5 μm, K=50 μm.
    Photomicrographs of Pseudokahliella marina from protargol-impregnated specimens. A, Ventral view of typical cell; B, Three dorsal kineties (arrowheads); C, Three frontal cirri (arrowheads); D, Hook-like shape of adoral membranelles (arrowheads); E, Paroral (arrowhead) and endoral (arrow) membranes; F, Right marginal cirral row on dorsal side (arrowhead); G, Frontoventral cirral rows (arrowheads); H, Left marginal row (arrowhead); I, Macronucleus (arrowhead) with thread-like structure (double arrowhead) and micronucleus (arrow); J, Ingested diatom (arrowhead); K, Ingested Euplotes sp. (arrowhead). Scale bars: A=100 μm, I=5 μm, K=50 μm.
  • [Table 3.] Morphometric data of Pseudokahliella marina
    Morphometric data of Pseudokahliella marina
  • [Table 4.] Comparisons of different populations of Pseudokahliella marina
    Comparisons of different populations of Pseudokahliella marina