First Record of Two Urostyloid Ciliates (Spirotrichea: Urostylida: Urostyloidea) from Brackish Water in Korea

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  • ABSTRACT

    Two urostyloid ciliates, collected from brackish water in Korea, were identified as Diaxonella pseudorubra pseudorubra (Kaltenbach, 1960) Berger, 2006 and Pseudokeronopsis flava (Cohn, 1866) Wirnsberger, Larsen and Uhlig, 1987. The description was based on living, protargol impregnated specimens. These species are described as follows: Diaxonella pseudorubra pseudorubra: body size in vivo 145-230 × 40-60 μm, elongated ellipsoidal in shape. Cytoplasm reddish and flexible. Adoral zone of membranelles occupied 30-40% of the body; composed of 33-44 membranelles; 1-3 frontoterminal cirri, 1-4 frontal row cirri, 4-6 buccal cirri, 6-10 transverse cirri. Midventral rows composed of 14-24 cirri, four left marginal rows, one right marginal row. Two kinds of cortical granules; the larger one is yellowish and the smaller one is reddish. Pseudokeronopsis flava: body size in vivo 150-210 × 30-45 μm, elongated ellipsoidal shape. Cytoplasm yellowish and flexible. Adoral zone of membranelles occupied 25-30% of body; composed of 44-58 membranelles in number. Frontal cirri forming bicorona composed of 5-7 cirral pairs, 2-3 frontoterminal cirri, one buccal cirrus, and 2-3 transverse cirri. Midventral rows composed of 18-33 cirri, 34-53 left marginal cirri, and 40-58 right marginal cirri. Two kinds of cortical granules; the larger one is colorless and “blood-cell-shaped,” and the smaller one is yellowish. Diaxonella pseudorubra pseudorubra is different from the most similar subspecies, D. pseudorubra pulchra, in cytoplasmic color and number of midventral cirri. Pseudokeronopsis flava is different from its most similar congeners in pigment granular color, number of bicorona, number of midventral cirri, and position of the con-tractile vacuole.


  • KEYWORD

    Diaxonella , Pseudokeronopsis , hypotrichs , redescription , estuary , brackish water , morphology

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  • [Table 1.] Morphometric data of Diaxonella pseudorubra pseudorubra
    Morphometric data of Diaxonella pseudorubra pseudorubra
  • [Table 2.] Comparisons of Diaxonella pseudorubra pseudorubra which has different names
    Comparisons of  Diaxonella pseudorubra pseudorubra which has different names
  • [Fig. 1.] Diaxonella pseudorubra pseudorubra from live (A-F) and impregnated specimens (G H). A Ventral view of a typical individual; B C Arrangement of cortical granules on ventral and dorsal sides; D Flattened lateral view; E Two kinds of cortical granules ondorsal side; F Various body shapes; G Somatic and oral infraciliature of ventral side; H Dorsal kineties and nuclear apparatus.AZM adoral zone of membranelles; BC buccal cirrus; DK dorsal kineties; EM endoral membrane; FC frontal cirri; FRC frontalrow cirri; FTC frontoterminal cirri; LMC left marginal cirri; Ma macronuclear nodules; Mi micronuclei; MVC midventral cirri; PM paroral membrane; PTC pretransverse cirri; RMC right marginal cirri; TC transverse cirri. Scale bars: A D G=50 μm E=5 μm.
    Diaxonella pseudorubra pseudorubra from live (A-F) and impregnated specimens (G H). A Ventral view of a typical individual; B C Arrangement of cortical granules on ventral and dorsal sides; D Flattened lateral view; E Two kinds of cortical granules ondorsal side; F Various body shapes; G Somatic and oral infraciliature of ventral side; H Dorsal kineties and nuclear apparatus.AZM adoral zone of membranelles; BC buccal cirrus; DK dorsal kineties; EM endoral membrane; FC frontal cirri; FRC frontalrow cirri; FTC frontoterminal cirri; LMC left marginal cirri; Ma macronuclear nodules; Mi micronuclei; MVC midventral cirri; PM paroral membrane; PTC pretransverse cirri; RMC right marginal cirri; TC transverse cirri. Scale bars: A D G=50 μm E=5 μm.
  • [Fig. 2.] Photomicrographs of Diaxonella pseudorubra pseudorubra from live specimens. A Ventral view of a typical individual; B Flattened lateral view; C Contractile vacuole (arrowhead); D Somatic ciliature of the ventral side; E Arrangement of corticalgranules on the ventral side (arrowheads); F Buccal cirri (arrows) and undulating membranes (arrowhead); G Patterns of corticalgranules: larger (arrowhead) and smaller (arrow) arrangement around dorsal bristle of smaller cortical granules (double arrowhead); H Dorsal bristles (arrowhead); I Pretransverse cirri (arrow) and transverse cirri (arrowhead); J-L Various food vacuoles; J Diatom Pleurosigma sp.; K Aspidisca sp.; L Small particle of wheat grain. Scale bars: A=50 μm G H=5 μm.
    Photomicrographs of  Diaxonella pseudorubra pseudorubra from live specimens. A Ventral view of a typical individual; B Flattened lateral view; C Contractile vacuole (arrowhead); D Somatic ciliature of the ventral side; E Arrangement of corticalgranules on the ventral side (arrowheads); F Buccal cirri (arrows) and undulating membranes (arrowhead); G Patterns of corticalgranules: larger (arrowhead) and smaller (arrow) arrangement around dorsal bristle of smaller cortical granules (double arrowhead); H Dorsal bristles (arrowhead); I Pretransverse cirri (arrow) and transverse cirri (arrowhead); J-L Various food vacuoles; J Diatom Pleurosigma sp.; K Aspidisca sp.; L Small particle of wheat grain. Scale bars: A=50 μm G H=5 μm.
  • [Fig. 3.] Photomicrographs of Diaxonella pseudorubra pseudorubra from impregnated specimens. A Ventral view of a typical individual; B Buccal cirri (arrowhead) and undulating membranes (arrow); C Four frontal cirri (arrowheads); D Two frontoterminal cirri (arro-wheads); E Frontal row cirri (arrowheads); F Four left marginal rows (arrowheads); G Right marginal row (arrowhead) and midventralcomplex (arrow); H Pretransverse cirri (arrow) and transverse cirri (arrowhead); I Dorsal kineties (arrowheads) and extra dorsalbristles (arrow); J Macronuclear (arrowhead) and micronuclei (arrows). Scale bars: A=50 μm J=10 μm.
    Photomicrographs of Diaxonella pseudorubra pseudorubra from impregnated specimens. A Ventral view of a typical individual; B Buccal cirri (arrowhead) and undulating membranes (arrow); C Four frontal cirri (arrowheads); D Two frontoterminal cirri (arro-wheads); E Frontal row cirri (arrowheads); F Four left marginal rows (arrowheads); G Right marginal row (arrowhead) and midventralcomplex (arrow); H Pretransverse cirri (arrow) and transverse cirri (arrowhead); I Dorsal kineties (arrowheads) and extra dorsalbristles (arrow); J Macronuclear (arrowhead) and micronuclei (arrows). Scale bars: A=50 μm J=10 μm.
  • [Table 3.] Morphometric data of Pseudokeronopsis flava
    Morphometric data of  Pseudokeronopsis flava
  • [Table 4.] Comparisons of different populations of Pseudokeronopsis flava
    Comparisons of different populations of Pseudokeronopsis flava
  • [Fig. 4.] Pseudokeronopsis flava from live (A-E) and impregnated specimens (F G). A Ventral view of a typical individual; B Arrange-ment of cortical granules on the ventral side; C Three cortical granular rows on the dorsal side; D E Cortical granule groups (arrowhead) and “blood-cell-shaped” granules (arrow) apparatus; F Somatic and oral infraciliature of the ventral side; G Threedorsal kineties and nuclear apparatus. AZM adoral zone of membranelles; BC buccal cirrus; Bicorona FC arranged in arcs formingcirri; DK dorsal kineties; EM endoral membrane; FTC frontoterminal cirri; LMC left marginal cirri; Ma macronuclear nodules; MVCmidventral cirri; PM paroral membrane; RMC right marginal cirri; TC transverse cirri. Scale bars: A G=50 μm E=2 μm.
    Pseudokeronopsis flava from live (A-E) and impregnated specimens (F G). A Ventral view of a typical individual; B Arrange-ment of cortical granules on the ventral side; C Three cortical granular rows on the dorsal side; D E Cortical granule groups (arrowhead) and “blood-cell-shaped” granules (arrow) apparatus; F Somatic and oral infraciliature of the ventral side; G Threedorsal kineties and nuclear apparatus. AZM adoral zone of membranelles; BC buccal cirrus; Bicorona FC arranged in arcs formingcirri; DK dorsal kineties; EM endoral membrane; FTC frontoterminal cirri; LMC left marginal cirri; Ma macronuclear nodules; MVCmidventral cirri; PM paroral membrane; RMC right marginal cirri; TC transverse cirri. Scale bars: A G=50 μm E=2 μm.
  • [Fig. 5.] Photomicrographs of Pseudokeronopsis flava from live specimens. A Ventral view of a typical individual; B Flattened lateralview; C Showing flexible body; D Dorsal kineties (arrowheads); E Contractile vacuole (arrowhead); F Arrangement of corticalgranule on ventral side; G H Cortical granule groups (arrowheads) and “blood-cell-shaped” granules (arrow) apparatus on dorsalside; I Three transverse cirri (arrowhead); J K Various food vacuoles; J One kind of Chlorophyta; K Coleps sp. Scale bar: A=50 μm.
    Photomicrographs of  Pseudokeronopsis flava from live specimens. A Ventral view of a typical individual; B Flattened lateralview; C Showing flexible body; D Dorsal kineties (arrowheads); E Contractile vacuole (arrowhead); F Arrangement of corticalgranule on ventral side; G H Cortical granule groups (arrowheads) and “blood-cell-shaped” granules (arrow) apparatus on dorsalside; I Three transverse cirri (arrowhead); J K Various food vacuoles; J One kind of Chlorophyta; K Coleps sp. Scale bar: A=50 μm.
  • [Fig. 6.] Photomicrographs of Pseudokeronopsis flava from impregnated specimens. A Ventral view of a typical individual; B Dorsalkineties (arrowheads); C Two frontoterminal cirri (arrowheads); D Buccal cirrus (arrowhead) and undulating membranes; E Infracil-iatureof bicorona (arrows); F Three transverse cirri (arrowhead). Scale bar: A=50 μm.
    Photomicrographs of  Pseudokeronopsis flava from impregnated specimens. A Ventral view of a typical individual; B Dorsalkineties (arrowheads); C Two frontoterminal cirri (arrowheads); D Buccal cirrus (arrowhead) and undulating membranes; E Infracil-iatureof bicorona (arrows); F Three transverse cirri (arrowhead). Scale bar: A=50 μm.