Two New Marine Sponges of the Genus Halichondria (Halichondrida: Halichondriidae) from Uljin, Korea

  • cc icon
  • ABSTRACT

    Two new marine sponges, Halichondria jangseungenesis n. sp. and H. nagokenesis n. sp., of the family Halichondriidae, were collected from Uljin-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea by SCUBA diving during the period from Apr 2007 to Aug 2007. Based on their spicule composition and skeletal structure, H. jangseungenesis n.sp. appears to have a close similarity with H. panicea (Pallas, 1766); however, they differ in length of spicule. The spicule length of oxea of H. jangseungenesis n. sp. is shorter than that of H. panicea. Based on their spicule composition and growth form, H. nagokenesis n. sp. is quite similar to H. cylindrata Tanita and Hoshino, 1989; however, but they differ in length of spicule. The spicule length of oxea of H. nagokenesis n. sp. is longer than that of H. cylindrata.


  • KEYWORD

    Halichondria , new species , sponge , Korea

  • INTRODUCTION

    Marine sponges of the family Halichondriidae Gray, 1867 have an irregular choanosomal skeleton consisting of a high density of spicules arranged in confusing, vague, ill-defined,directionless tracts and spicules (Hooper et al., 1997). Finding conspicuous anatomical characteristics of the genus Halichondria has been a particular challenge for sponge taxonomists (Carvalho and Hajdu, 2001).

    The genus Halichondria is characterized by a tangential ectosomal skeleton carried by subectosomal spicule tracts or brushes separated by subdermal spaces. Megascleres of the genus Halichondria have only oxeas or derivates in a wide range of sizes (de Laubenfels, 1936; Hooper and van Soest, 2002). Approximately 110 species from all regions and habitats have been recorded (Hooper and van Soest, 2002). Nine species of Halichondria from Korean waters have been reported (Kim et al., 1968; Rho and Lee, 1976; Kang and Sim, 2008a, 2008b; Jeon and Sim, 2009; Kim and Sim, 2009).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    Sponges were collected from Uljin-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea by SCUBA diving during 2007. Specimens were fixed in 95% or 99.9% ethanol. Spicules were observed under a light microscope (Carl Zeiss Axioskop II; Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany). Identification was made on the basis of external features of sponges, growth form, skeletal structure, and spicule size and form. For observation of the endosomal skeletal structure, thin free-hand sections were made with specimens hardened in alcohol using a surgical blade. Spicules were prepared by dissolving a piece of sponge in sodium hypochlorite and examined under an scanning electron microscopy (Rutzler, 1978; Hooper, 1996). Holotypes of two new species have been deposited in the Department of Biological Sciences, Hannam University, Daejeon, Korea.

    SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNTS

    Phylum Porifera Grant, 1836

    Class Demospongiae Sollas, 1885

    Order Halichondrida Gray, 1867

    Family Halichondriidae Gray, 1867

    1*Halichondria jangseungenesis n. sp.

    Kang and Sim, 2011 (Fig. 1)

      >  Material examined.

    Holotype (Por. 104), Uljin-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, 1 Apr 2007, SCUBA 25 m depth, by Lee JR, deposited in the Department of Biological Sciences, Hannam University, Daejeon, Korea.

      >  Description.

    Encrusting with chimney. Sized up to 4×3 cm wide and 0.2 cm thick. Oscules, 0.2-0.5 cm in diameter, opened at top of chimney. Osuclar chimney, characteristically grooved. Colour orange in life and gradually changed to ivory in alcohol. Texture Firm and compressible. Surface smooth. Ectosomal skeleton tangential arrangement and intercrossing bundles of spicule. Choanosomal skeleton composed of many spicular tracts and individual spicules scatter-

    ed whole body in confusion. Spicules composed of one type of oxea without microscleres. Oxea approximately 215-290×5-7.5 ㎛ in size.

      >  Etymology.

    The species is named after the type locality, Janseungbaegi, Uljin-gun, Korea.

      >  Remarks.

    Halichondria jangseungenesis n. sp. is similar to H. panicea (Pallas, 1766) in type of spicule and choansomal skeletal structure; however the former differs from the latter in size of spicule. The oxea of spicules is smaller than that of H. panicea. The shape of H. surrubicunda Hoshino, 1981, and H. corrugate, Diaz et al., 1993, were described as an irregular encrusting form with or without exhallent hollow cylinder/massive-lobate with oscular chimneys, and the composition of spicules with one type of oxea; thus, H. jangseungenesis n. sp. is close to these two species in these aspects. Nevertheless, they differ from this new species in their size of oxea, 300-500 ㎛, while in this new species 250 ㎛.

    1*Halichondria nagokenesis n. sp.

    Kang and Sim, 2011 (Fig. 2)

      >  Material examined.

    Holotype (Por. 105), Uljin-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea, 1 Aug 2007, SCUBA 20 m depth, by Lee JR, deposited in the Department of Biological Sciences, Hannam University, Daejeon, Korea.

      >  Description.

    Thick encrusting with numerous erect hollow cylindrical tube, 2.5-5 cm high. Sized up to 8×5 cm wide and 1.5 cm thick. Oscules, 0.3-0.5 cm in diameter, opened at top of each tube. Color ivory in ethyl alcohol. Texture soft. Surface smooth. Ectosomal skeleton tangential arrangement. Choanosomal skeleton large and extensive subchoanosomal space present, irregular and large-meshed net of spicuels, columns with spicules extend to surface and supporting ectosomal skeleton. Spicules composed of one type of oxea without microscleres.

    Oxea approximately 500-670×10-15 ㎛ in size.

      >  Etymology.

    The species is named after the type locality, Nagok, Uljin-gun, Korea.

      >  Remarks.

    H. nagokenesis n. sp. resemble H. cylindrata Tanita and Hoshino, 1989, in their growth form, with a welldeveloped hollow cylinder. Also, oscules open at the top of each tube. However, oxea of the new species is larger than that of H. cylindrata. The length of oxeas in the new species, 500-670 ㎛, is nearly double that of the H. cylindrata, 230-315 ㎛. This new species is similar to H. osculum Lundbeck, 1902, in its growth form, spicule composition and skeletal structure. However, oxea of H. nagokenesis n. sp., 500-670㎛ in length, is smaller than that of H. osculum 600-920㎛ in length.

    Korean name: 1*장승해변해면(신칭)       Korean name: 1*나곡해변해면

  • 1. Carvalho MS, Hajdu E 2001 Comments on brazilian Halichondria Fleming (Halichondriidae Halichondrida Demospongiae) with the description of four new species from the Sa~o Sebastia~o Channel and its environs (Tropical Southwestern Atlantic). [Revista Brasileira de Zoologia] Vol.18 P.161-180 google doi
  • 2. de Laubenfels MW 1936 A discussion of the sponge fauna of the Dry Tortugas in particular and the West Indies in generalwith material for a revision of the families and orders of the Porifera. [Papers from the Tortugas Laboratory] Vol.30 P.1-225 google
  • 3. Diaz MC, Pomponi SA, Van Soest RWM 1993 A systematic revision of the central West Atlantic Halichondrida (Demospongiae Porifera). Part. III: Description of valid species. [Scientia Marina] Vol.57 P.283-306 google
  • 4. Hooper JNA 1996 Revision of the Microcionidae (Porifera: Poecilosclerida:Demospongiae) with description of Australian species. [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum] Vol.40 P.1-626 google
  • 5. Hooper JNA, Cook SD, Hoobbs LJ, Kennedy JA, Hanley JR, Caswell G, Megirian D, Larson HK 1997 Australian Halichondriidae (Porifera: Demospongiae) I. Species from and the Beagle Gulf [In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Marine Biological Workshop] P.1-65 google
  • 6. Hooper JNA, van Soest PWM 2002 Systema Porifera. A guide to the classification of sponges. P.1-1101 google
  • 7. Jeon YJ, Sim CJ 2009 A new record of genus Halichondria (Demospongiae: Halichondriada: Halichondriidae) from Korea. [The Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology] Vol.25 P.137-139 google
  • 8. Kang DW, Sim CJ 2008a Two new sponges of the genus Halichondria (Halichondida: Halichondriidae) from Korea. [AnimalCells and Systems] Vol.12 P.65-68 google doi
  • 9. Kang DW, Sim CJ 2008b Two new marine sponges of the genus Halichondrida (Halichondida: Halichondriidae) from Korea. [The Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology] Vol.24 P.205-208 google
  • 10. Kim HR, Sim CJ 2009 A new species of the family Halichondriidae (Demospongiae: Halichondrida) from Jeju-do Island Korea. [The Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology] Vol.25 P.179-181 google
  • 11. Kim HS, Rho BJ, Sim CJ 1968 Marine sponges in south Korea (1). [The Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology] Vol.11 P.37-48 google
  • 12. Rho BJ, Lee KH 1976 A survey of marine sponges of Haeundae and its adjacent water. [Journal of Korean Research Institute for Better Living Ewha Womans University.] Vol.17 P.93-111 google
  • 13. Rutzler K 1978 Sponges in coral reefs. Coral reefs: research methods. Monographs on oceanographic methodology. Vol.5 (Eds. Stoddart DR Johannes RE). P.299-313 google
  • [Fig. 1.] Halichondira jangseungenesis n. sp. A Entire animal; B Oscule opened at the top of the column like a chimney; C D Surficial skeletal structure; E Endosomal skeletal structure (longitudinal section); F Oxeas. Scale bars: A=2 cm B=0.2 cm CD=200 ㎛ E=400 ㎛ F=100 ㎛.
    Halichondira jangseungenesis n. sp. A Entire animal; B Oscule opened at the top of the column like a chimney; C D Surficial skeletal structure; E Endosomal skeletal structure (longitudinal section); F Oxeas. Scale bars: A=2 cm B=0.2 cm CD=200 ㎛ E=400 ㎛ F=100 ㎛.
  • [Fig. 2.] Halichondria nagokenesis n. sp. A Entire animal; B Spicules (oxeas); C Surficial skeletal structure; D Skeletal structure (longitudinal section). Scale bars: A=1 cm; B C=300 ㎛; D=500 ㎛.
    Halichondria nagokenesis n. sp. A Entire animal; B Spicules (oxeas); C Surficial skeletal structure; D Skeletal structure (longitudinal section). Scale bars: A=1 cm; B C=300 ㎛; D=500 ㎛.