A Study on the Suggestions and Analysis on the Education Programs in the Presidential Libraries
- Author: Han Mi-Kyung
- Organization: Han Mi-Kyung
- Publish: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF KNOWLEDGE CONTENT DEVELOPMENT and TECHNOLOGY Volume 1, Issue1, p39~60, 30 June 2011
Presidential records are produced and collected with regard to Presidents' performance of his duties. Presidential libraries provide the users with open reading, exhibition, education, and promotion services. To maximize utilization of Presidential records as knowledge and information contents,it is most important to build educational programs as active services available. In this context, this study conducts investigation of the current status of education programs of Korea and US Presidential libraries. And this study also examines and analyzes distinguishing programs of 13 Presidential libraries in the US in order to bring up necessity for active educational programs and suggest various possible education programs. The findings of this study can be utilized as the basic reference materials to use in the process of building and pursuing plans for educational programs of Presidential libraries or individual record centers.
Education Programs , Presidential Libraries , Pesidential Records
Records are knowledge and information contents through which the past, the present, and the future contents are connected to each other and different generations of people are brought together.Among other things, Presidential records are particular because they are produced and collected with respect to Presidents' performance of duties. They can be potentially utilized and studied in various ways as typical knowledge contents of certain times.
Record centers play the pivotal role in terms of collection, management, storage, usage and utilization of records. As Presidential libraries play the role of professional collection and management of Presidential records, their importance is growing bigger than ever. According to website of Jimmy Carter Presidential Library, “A Presidential library is like a time capsule” because inside, people can find out important documents, records, and letters as well as audiovisual materials, campaign memorabilia, and gifts to the President and First Family. These materials help people learn about Presidents and the times when he lived.
Presidential libraries provides such services as reading, exhibition, education, and promotion to the users. Presidential libraries count the education services a lot. This is what differentiates Presidential libraries from other information centers such as ordinary libraries and museums. This is also why Presidential libraries provide a broader range of educational opportunities for students of all ages.President Reagan described Presidential libraries as ‘classrooms of democracy’. President Hoover,Reagan and Weinstein also stressed ‘education’ as the major role of Presidential libraries.
National Archives and Records Administration (hereinafter NARA) and Weinstein introduced education programs of typical Presidential libraries. NARA recommended some of education activities including: 1) The Presidential Timeline, 2) The White House Decision Center at the Truman Presidential Library and Museum, 3) Five Star Leaders at the Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum,4) The Cabinet Room at the Ford Presidential Library and Museum, 5) Pretend You Are the President.Weinstein (2006) from NARA also emphasize the importance of education program, mentioning‘Five Star Leaders’ and ‘White House Decision Center’ as typical examples supporting this importance.The rationale behind this thought is that both programs, which were developed with the support of the Eisenhower Foundation and the Truman Institute, respectively, provide junior high and high schoolers with the opportunities to visit the libraries and use facsimiles of historic documents in order to learn the way Dwight D. Eisenhower and Harry S. Truman made some of the 20th century's most historic decisions.
As seen above, the US, through these participatory education programs, actively provide people with the opportunities to utilize and study the records of Presidential libraries, enabling them to feel the educational role of Presidential libraries and the necessity for availability of education programs at such libraries. Hence, the major purpose of this study is to analyze and suggest education programs of the Presidential libraries, bring up necessity to introduce active education programs at Presidential libraries.
First, the previous studies in foreign countries were reviewed. Kahn (1959) viewed Presidential libraries as a new institution and formulated a new model of libraries in terms of not only records preservation but also function through analysis of Roosevelt and Truman Presidential Library and Museum. Cole (1968) insisted on strengthening of research assistance services in the Presidential libraries. Roe (1988), while studying the importance of Public Program, found out that it is possible to pursue essential goal of record management, promote the usage of history records, and improve the public awareness of records. Fischer (1991) studied and found out that Presidential libraries have gone through life cycle consisting of : 1) the development/nascent stage, 2) the professional use and research stage, 3) the mature library stage. Cook (2002) suggests publication and exhibition as possible programs of record centers. Horrocks (2004), in conjunction with the 50th anniversary of the US Presidential libraries, asserted that Presidential records of Presidential libraries should become more available to students and citizens across the US. Williams (2006), while describing foundations, principles and practice of archives management, stated that promotion and marketing can contribute to social integration and lifelong education. Potter (2006) released a report on Field Education Programs in the Presidential libraries titled ‘A Report from the Field’. Hufbauer (2007)brought up 6 suggestions regarding President Bush's plans. The fourth suggestion says that only a few libraries have strong educational programs. According to him, the Truman Library is one of typical examples of libraries which have developed an innovative program for middle and high school students called the White House Decision Center.
Second, previous studies in Korea were reviewed. Lee (2007) studied exhibition, education, promotion programs as means to utilize records in conjunction with the establishment of Presidential libraries. Kim (2008) studied pattern of education service examples at record centers for potential users. Chun(2008) analyzed the current status of service provided by Korea Presidential Library and the US,British, and Australian head of state libraries and studied how to supplement service and institution in archive and museum area. Chun (2009) studied education service available to teachers and students at public professional record management institutions. Lee (2009) analyzed the education programs of the US Lincoln, Roosevelt, Truman, Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum and studied how to improve education programs. Park (2010) analyzed the Lincoln, Roosevelt, Truman, Kennedy,George Bush, Carter and Hoover Presidential Library and Museum in addition to those of British and Australia and studied ways to improve education programs for students and teachers.
In case of foreign previous studies, the importance of public programs of Presidential libraries has been discussed since its early days. Most of all, history education and reading education have recently been emphasized in our society as a whole. This is becoming more visible trend as concrete education programs of record centers are mentioned through the promotions conducted by NARA based on Presidential libraries education program in 2006. In case of domestic previous studies cover studies on Presidential Records Management Act which was legislated in 2007. And recently, more specific case analysis of service was conducted as well as research on ways to improve or invigorate services of Presidential Library. Above all, this study conducts analysis of the overall and distinguishing features of Presidential libraries. While other studies targets at some of US Presidetial libraries,this study targets at all of 13 individualized and specialized Presidential libraries in the US.
The purpose of this study is to bring up necessity for education programs and propose various education programs as Presidential Library is in transition period to move to Sejong City in 2014 while the reading rooms and exhibition programs of the current Presidential Library of National Archives of Korea (hereinafter NAK) is being operated in limited space. There can be some limitation on the actual application of the education programs which are proposed through this study but they will be worthwhile using as reference resources. The methodology used in this study is as follows :
First, to conduct theoretical review, literature studies were basically used, while on-line materials were partly referred to and acts and dictionary definitions were partly referred to as needed.
Second, to conduct previous studies, comprehensive analysis and organization of domestic and overseas previous studies were conducted through Meta-study method, targeting at Presidential libraries,Presidential records, related services and education programs.
Third, to study education programs of Korea and the US Presidential libraries, internet survey method and status analysis method were used. As this research is mainly based on information provided through internet, there is possibility that some information, especially information which is not available through internet sites, might have been missed by accident in this research. It is noted that Presidential Library of Korea is that of combined type, while Presidential libraries of the US is those of individual type. For this reason, this study is based on separate investigation of each case rather than comparison of one with the other.
Fourth, to analyze and sort characteristics of education programs of the US Presidential libraries,internet survey method, case studies, and Meta-Study method were used. And then, analysis of examplary education programs were analyzed, formulating some suggestions.
2.1.1. Presidential Records
The definition of ‘Presidential records’ by Presidential Records Management Act of Korea is Presidents' (including the acting Presidents' and the President-elects') records which are produced,received, and held by Presidents, aides and advisory agencies and guard work execution agencies,and Presidential Transition Committees with regard to the Presidents' performance of their duties articles and personal records produced by Presidents before, after, and during their term of office.
In case of the US, according to USC, 44 USC 2201, the term ‘Presidential records’ means documentary materials, or any reasonably separable portion thereof, generated or received by the President, his immediate staff, or a unit or individual of the Executive Office of the President whose function is to advise and assist the President, in the process of carrying out activities which are related to or have an effect on performance of the constitutional, statutory, or other official or ceremonial duties of the President.
According to final report commissioned by NAK (2007), Presidents are heads of state who exert significant influence on the nation's major policy and each sector of society through exercise of enormous power. Presidents can produce and own records which are more politically, diplomatically,socially, and economically sensitive than any other public records during their execution of duties. Therefore, Presidential records should be collected, managed, and utilized as important information resources and knowledge contents. And among typical function of Presidential libraries such as reading, exhibition, education, promotion functions, education should be the function to be performed based on active utilization Presidential records.
2.1.2. Presidential Libraries
‘Presidential libraries (or Presidential archives)’ means institutions which permanently manages Presidential records with equipment for record perpetuation and professional staff for operation,according to Presidential Records Management Act. Management of Presidential libraries of Korea was legislated in 1987, according to ‘Government Public Document Regulation’ which enforces the transference of Presidential records to Public Record Office. Since then, in conjunction with legislation of ‘Presidential Records Management Act’ in 2007, Presidential Library was opened at NAK. Since then, it has managed Presidential records in comprehensive way. On the other hand,there are individual Presidential libraries such as Kim Dae-jung Library of Yonsei University.
According to NARA, Presidential libraries promote understanding of the presidency. SAA's A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology defines Presidential libraries as an archival repository within the NARA that preserves and makes available the papers, records, and other historical materials of individuals elected to the Office of the President of the United States.
A brief history (see Table 1) says that the Presidential library system formally began in 1939.It is the time when President Franklin Roosevelt donated his personal and Presidential papers to the Federal Government. Before the appearance of the Presidential libraries system, Presidents or their heirs often dispersed Presidential papers when their term of office come to an end. Although lots of pre-Hoover collections are now placed in the Library of Congress, others are split among other libraries, historical societies, and private collections. Until 1978, Presidents, scholars, and legal professionals kept the view that the records created by the President or his staff during their term of office stayed Presidents' personal property, which dates back to George Washington. Based on this view, they thought it is left to Presidents' personal decision whether to take or leave those when they finished their term of office.
These days, the American Presidency is part of a unique heritage that belongs to people who have right to exploring them through archives, museums, and special programs. In this context, Presidential libraries preserve the documents and artifacts of our Presidents, providing insight into the times when these Presidents lived and served the nation.
Korea followed the regulation of ‘Public Records Management Act’ since legislation of ‘Government Public Document Regulation’ in 1987. In 2007, Korea legislated Presidential Records Management Act and enforcement ordinance on Presidential records. This defines details necessary to manage Presidential records efficiently and install and operate Presidential libraries. The examples of these details include those related to protection, preservation, and utilization of Presidential records. The purpose of these details is to enhance transparency and accountabilities of state administration.
The relevant laws and regulations in the US are as follows :
Presidential Libraries Act of 1955. It established a system of privately erected and federally maintained libraries.
Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Act of 1974. It applies only to the Nixon Presidential Materials.
The Presidential Records Act of 1978. The Presidential records that document the constitutional,statutory, and ceremonial duties of the president are the property of the United States Government. The Act allowed them to continue Presidential libraries as the repository for Presidential records.
The Presidential Libraries Act of 1986. It required private endowments to be linked to the size of the facility.
The functions (in other words, services) of Korea Presidential Library is displayed in a diagram form as shown in Fig 1. Of them, services related to records include 1) open reading, 2) exhibition,3) education, 4) promotion, 5) assistance related to research activities. These are official function and services targeting at Presidential Records.
Meanwhile, the functions described at Presidential libraries of NARA is not so different from that of Korea. In other words, they include 1) museums featuring interactive exhibits, 2) interesting and fun public programs, 3) important educational events, 4) vast archives available for scholarly research. However, there is some difference between the two in terms of practical operation of the program.
In case of the Mission of the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum, the functions of the Presidential library is defined as to preserve and protect the historical materials in the collections of the Johnson Library and make them readily accessible; to increase public awareness of the American experience through relevant exhibitions and educational programs; to advance the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum's standing as a center for intellectual activity and community leadership while meeting the challenges of a changing world.
In summary, the major functions of Presidential libraries of Korea and the US are, by and large,reading, exhibition, education, and research, while the US pursues more active and participatory services.
Presidential Library of Korea, unlike that of the US, collects and manages Presidential records as a combined system. There are some individual Presidential libraries such as Kim Dae-jung Library of Yeonsei University and Kim Young-sam Democracy Center. The education programs of Kim Dae-jung Library include operation of work-study in addition to lecture type programs for the general public and lecture programs specifically for college students. And its work-study for elementary,junior high, and high school students, consists of a education programs such as exhibition which does not require active participation.
In case of Kim Young-sam Democracy Center, its education programs can be reviewed in terms of roles and major work. Their mission statement defines its desired role as a library filled with history of ceratin times, research center laying the basis for objective study, history and culture centre, and centre for national education. And its major work is defined as 1) reevaluation of democracy of Korea through objective studies, 2) operation of education programs for teachers, students, and citizens as its major research and education service. It is expected that this suggestion will come true with the establishment of a Library Commemorating President Kim Young-sam.
In case of Presidential Library of NAK, Presidential records have been collected and managed since times of old Public Record Office. In November 2007, office of Presidential Library was newly opened and in 2014, it will move to Presidential Library of Korea, which is located in Sejong City. Major functions of Presidential Library of NAK include open reading, exhibition, education,and promotion of Presidential records, according to Presidential Records Management Act. The sixth work listed in its major official work in 2010 is relevant to pursuit of Sejoing City Presidential Library establishment. The details of its work include 1) pursuit of building independent specific exclusive facilities with equipments and preservation facilities to keep key records on state affairs of successive presidents, 2) building of multi-service center which consists of exhibition hall, library,research and education centers for the purpose of laying the basis for people-friendly utilization of Presidential records. Judging by its pursuit of construction of multi-service center such as education center in Sejong City, it can be guessed that more professional education related programs are being planned in Korea.
In terms of organizational chart and job description of Presidential libraries, promotion and education programs are taken care of by promotion assistance department. In terms of record and work related to record management, which is part of actual operation of this department, record culture experience and field trip program are being operated as part of education-related programs.
And one of on-line contents, History Class for Children, is being operated. This is compiled,based on contents of social studies text book made by elementary school students for 6th graders(5th graders according to the 7th revision), and edited in tune with curriculum through utilization of various Presidential records.
Overall, neither individual Presidential libraries nor Presidential Library of NAK are pursuing education related work actively in Korea. There needs to be designation of professional education program as part of official work and placement of human resources for this purpose. Especially with regard to relocation of Presidential Library to Sejong City, it is necessary to set up plan in terms of space and time, placement of human resources, and detailed education practice program.
In the US, the Presidential library system is a nationwide network of 13 libraries administered by the Office of Presidential Libraries, which is part of NARA (see Table 1). These are making available the papers, records, collections and other historical materials of every President of the US since Herbert Hoover. The Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace was not originally part of the Presidential libraries system. On July 11, 2007, the Nixon Foundation deeded the Library and Birthplace to the US government. On the same day, the newly-renamed federal Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum and Museum was officially opened. George W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum and Museum is not open to the public yet. Groundbreaking for their permanent facility at Southern Methodist University took place in November 2010, and they expect the facility to be eventually open to the public in 2013.
Meanwhile, the following Table 2 shows 12 categorized education programs of the US Presidential libraries which have yet to be open to the public. Except Clinton Library, which provides only field trip to students because it is still under construction, and Reagan Library, which provides class visit, most of Presidential libraries has permanent ‘educations’ items in their programs or directly operate education programs through division of target groups into students and teachers(or educators). A few libraries such as Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum are operating education programs for adults and families.
For students, those libraries run such programs as 1) school tour, 2) curriculum connection, 3) resources. Some programs are being operated based on target groups are divided into elementary and middle graders or high schoolers. Their programs can be targeted at certain groups categorized by grades or overall groups or certain type of kids or preschoolers.
Programs for teachers consist of 1) works shops, 2) professional development, 3) lesson plan,4) resources, 5) conference, 6) newsletter. They run either all or some of these programs in detail.On the other hand, there are special programs including 1) Document-based or Historical Literature Programs, 2) Materials or resources, 3) Scholarship Program, 4) Interactive Learning Program. The detailed analysis and characteristic of these programs will be dealt with in the following chapter.
Details of each education programs are as shown in the following Table 3. They includes education programs, other education related programs, and special programs. In case programs for students and teachers are not clearly separated, arbitrary classification was conducted.
According to education programs (see Table 3) provided by the US Presidential libraries and the operation ratio(see Fig. 2) of major education programs, most of them provide school tour and special programs to the students, and workshop and lesson plan for teachers, and provide relevant resources to the users in a proper way, in other words, by target groups, and by grades. Resources related to school tour account for 83.3% of each of these two programs, proving that they are basic education program (See Fig. 2). Other characteristic education programs of the US Presidential libraries education program than the above two are shown in the following Table 3. They include 1) Typical examples of education program by target groups, 2) Programs related to National Historical Day, 3) The White House Decision Center program, 4) Five Star Leaders program, 5) Professional Development, 6) Essay Contest, 7) Programs to provide specialist assistance such as Educational Specialist and Curriculum Advisory Board.
3.3.1. Typical Examples of Each Education Programs by Groups
These include 1) examples of education programs by target groups, 2) examples of programs by grades, 3) examples of well-built data for education, 4) examples of programs for adults and school parents.
1) Examples of Education Programs by Groups
In case of Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, programs for teachers, students, and parents are being operated separately. And education specialists who are ready to provide professional assistance and consulting are placed (See Table 4).
As seen in the above Table 4, ‘Document-based Ideas and Primary Sources’ for teachers use in the classroom, Information and project ideas about the Roosevelt era for students, ‘Ideas and Information’ for parents to help their children learn about the Roosevelt are being run. The case of Roosevelt President Library Museum presents a good example of how additional measures to place education specialists can lead to the better performance of the education program. Examples of the above four groups are described as follows (see Table 4).
First, examples of programs for teachers.
Document-based Education Programs for teachers. The Franklin D. Roosevelt Library and Museum's Education Department staff conducts educational programs designed for students ranging from Kids to 12th grades, college and university students, adult learners, and the general public.These programs include classroom workshops, museum programs, teacher development seminars,and outreach. Teachers are able to develop their skills by participating in a variety of professional development workshops that depend on the rich resources and knowledgeable staff.
Teacher Development Workshops. The Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum offers a number of both on and off site Professional Development Workshops drawing on abundant resources and staff of good knowledge. Teachers can sharpen their skills, renew their zest for teaching history and gain professional development credit in the way they attend a variety of professional development workshops.
Second, as examples of education program for students, part of ‘Doing Research Projects’ can be used in the following way.
Ideas for Research and Project Topics. Find a wide variety of broad topic ideas that they can narrow and refine then take to their teacher for approval as a term paper or project topic. Once they have talked to their teacher, they can contact the education specialist to find primary source information for their research.
The Library Research Guide. This document is designed to be a brief guide to help them organize themselves and their thoughts as they begin to plan and perform a research assignment.Topics include the nature of research, clarifying your task, actually getting started, developing critical thinking skills, and using primary sources.
Third, as examples of use for school parents, the purpose of this section is to aid parents
understanding of the research process and to assist them help their children learn to find and use information contained in historic documents to answer questions and challenge assumptions.As mentioned in the education program for each student and school parent, they can contact education specialists if they have questions about education programs, teacher workshops or other education matters in case of Roosevelt Presidential Library.
2) Examples of Programs by Grades
Grades Program provided by Truman Presidential library include 1) Footlocker for 4th to 6th grade, 2) Truman Places Map for 4th to 7th grade, 3) Guided tours for 4th to 12th grade, 4) National History Day for 6th to 12th grade, 5) White House Decision Center for 8th to 12th grade,6) Spy’s Dilemma for 8th to 12th grade, 7) Top Secret: WW II for 8th to 12th grade, 8) Student Research Files for 8th to College students. Students of each grade are provided with 1) research:online photos, online documents etc., 2) games and activities, 3) multimedia collection: cartoons,photos, documents, speeches etc.
The Student Research File is one example of the programs by grades, which consist of copies of what historians call primary sources-memoranda, letters, reports, speeches, notes, cables, and published material (newspaper and magazine articles and other printed items) which are either contemporary with the events they describe or which are based on personal memories of the events described. The Student Research File is currently divided into 53 topics. Each topic is focused on an event or issue from Truman's life and presidency and contains between 500 and 1500 pages of documents selected from the Truman Library's collections by its archives staff.
3) Examples of Well-built Data for Education
(1) Truman Presidential Library and Museum
Teacher Lessons are classified into elementary and secondary lessons. The former consists of classroom lesson plans for students ranging from kids to 5th grade and the latter consists of lesson plans for students ranging from grades 6th to 12th and beyond. These include education resources self-initiated and built by NARA as well as those provided by Truman Presidential Library and Museum. This shows that the programs are operated without being confined to one area but applied on a nationwide scale.
(2) Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum
In case of ‘Curricular Resources’, innovative lesson plans and online exhibits feature archival materials to be customized to the needs of specific classrooms. They consist of resources for Elementary School, Middle School, High School as follows.
Resources for Elementary School include Biographical Resources, In the White House Campaign,Election, Inauguration Historical Resources, etc.
Resources for Middle School include Biographical Resources, The Kennedy White House Campaign, Election and Inauguration, Historical Resources, etc.
Resources for High School include Biographical Resources, The Cold War Campaign, Election and Inauguration The Kennedy White House, Civil Rights, Civic Education, etc.
(3) Carter Presidential Library and Museum
Carter Center Teacher Resource Center provides information resources for teachers by subjects as shown in the following Table 5.
The Center's work provides a valuable learning opportunity to students. Efforts to wage peace,fight disease and build hope around the world illustrate relevant principles of the US Government and Civics, International Economics, the US and World History, and Geography. Lessons found here consistent with and supportive to the 2007 Georgia Performance Standards for Social Studies.Each lesson incorporates material from current Carter Center programs.
4) Education Programs for Adults and School Parents
These are education programs operated by Truman Presidential Library and Museum and Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. The former operates the ‘World History Decision for Adults Program’ and ‘Loan Video Program for Adults Program’. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum operates education programs for adults and school parents. Those programs are categorized as follows :
First, programs for Adults.
Discover museum programs and engage in public affairs forums.
Walk-In Museum Programs, which are provided to explore the museum on a guided tour or participate in a hands-on history program.
Kennedy Library Forums, which are provided to foster public exchange on a diverse range of historical, political and cultural topics.
Second, programs for families. ‘Explore special programs for families’ and ‘Walk-In Museum Programs’ are being operated. The former program includes Explore the museum on a guided tour or take part in hands-on history program.
Meanwhile, 16 types (See Table 3) of special programs are operated by seven libraries (see Fig.3) including Roosevelt, Truman, Kennedy, Johnson, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton Presidential Library.This study will review some special programs including those related to National History Day.
3.3.2. Program related to National History Day
National History Day (or History Day) is a national academic competition, focusing on history,for students in grades 6-12. The National History Day program began in Cleveland, Ohio in 1974.Each year, more than half a million students construct entries as an individual or in a group in one of five categories-Documentary, Exhibit, Paper, Performance or Website. Students then compete in a series of contests (Regional and State) to proceed to the National Contest. The education program of Presidential libraries related to National History Day are operated by Truman, Johnson,and Clinton Presidential Library and Museum.
1) Greater Kansas City History Day of Truman Presidential Library and Museum
Greater Kansas City History Day (Missouri) is an education program related to National History Day. There are junior (6th-8th grades) and senior divisions (9th-12th grades). Students compete first at the regional level (Greater Kansas City). First, second and third-place entrants qualify for the state finals in Columbia. First and second place winners at Columbia proceed to the national finals in Washington, D.C. each June. Prizes, certificates, and scholarships are provided at each level of the competition.
2) Cen-Tex History Fair of Johnson Presidential Library and Museum
The Cen-Tex History Fair is also National History Day event. Johnson Presidential Library and Museum will conduct a free workshop for middle and high school teachers, parents, and students.First, select a topic and they determine the consequences based on the evidence. After they finish their research, they have a choice on how to tell the story. They may choose to create a historical performance, paper, web site, documentary or an exhibit.
3) History Day Workshop of Clinton Presidential Library and Museum
History Day Workshop is targeted at 5th-12th graders. This workshop is sponsored by a grant from the Arkansas Humanities Council with funding from the Winthrop Rockefeller Foundation
The stakeholders in the above kind of education programs are able to provide students with opportunities to learn historical content and develop research, thinking and communication skills through the study of history and to provide educators with resources and training to enhance classroom teaching.
3.3.3. The White House Decision Center Program
This is special education program of Truman Presidential Library and Museum and an experiential program in which students assume the roles of President Truman and his advisors facing real-life historical decisions. The White House Decision Center provides students with an innovative special learning experience in a recreation of the West Wing of the White House. These are divided into Secondary School Program and Adult Program.
Secondary School Program. The White House Decision Center program for secondary school students, grades 8 to 12, consists of five hours of classroom work, and an experiential decision making exercise. The program is designed to respond to education standards, including the State of Missouri Show-Me Standards, which emphasize information gathering and analysis,problem solving, decision making, leadership, communication, group learning, the interpretation of original historical documents, and knowledge of history and government.
Adult Program. Advisers then meet to discuss the ideas and strategies they will want to recommend to the President. The President meets with his advisers to decide what to do and to prepare to make a statement to the press. Finally the President delivers his or her statement at a press conference while others become reporters and ask questions.
3.3.4. Five Star Leaders Program
‘Five Star Leaders’ program at the Eisenhower Library and Museum in Abilene, Kansas, a program that opened in the fall of 2005. At the Eisenhower Library and Museum, students describe General Eisenhower and his commanders in the events which led to the decision to go ahead with the D-day invasion of Europe on June 6, 1944. Five Star Leaders is also developing a scenario for President Eisenhower's decision to send troops to Little Rock in the 1957 desegregation crisis.
3.3.5. Professional Development
Professional Development programs are being operated by Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum and Clinton Presidential Library and Museum.
The Department of Education and Public Programs of the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum provide professional development opportunities for elementary and secondary school educators. These offerings range from day-long conferences to two-week institutes and take place throughout the year. Programs combine opportunities to interact with leaders in the fields of history,public affairs and politics with creative teaching tools and primary source materials.
This seem to be the most meaningful education program for teachers. In this context, Boston Public School teacher who took part in Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum education program said “This institute was, by far, the best I have ever attended in all my years of teaching.”
3.3.6. Essay Contest Program
Kennedy and George Bush Presidential Library and Museum provide Essay Contest programs.Kennedy's Profiles in Courage Essay Contest shows that President John F. Kennedy respected and admired acts of political courage. His book, Profiles in Courage, published in 1956, recounts the stories of eight U.S. Senators who risked their careers by taking principled stances for unpopular positions. The Profile in Courage Award, presented each May by the Kennedy Library Foundation, honors elected officials who have demonstrated exceptional political courage.
The Profile in Courage Essay Contest invites United States high school students to consider the concept of political courage by writing an essay on a U.S. elected official who has chosen to do the right thing, instead of doing the convenient thing. A ‘Profile in Courage’ essay is a carefully researched recounting of a story: the story of how an elected official risked his or her career to take stance based on what their conscience say instead of what polls, interest groups or even constituents dictates. High school students are challenged by this contest into discovering new profiles in courage, and to therefore research and write about acts of political courage that happened after the publication of Kennedy's Profiles in Courage in 1956.
3.3.7. Specialists' Assistance Program
There are programs to provide the assistance of specialists or advisory committee such as Education Specialist and Curriculum Advisory Board (hereinafter CAB) to the users.
First, in case of Roosevelt's and Eisenhower's Presidential Library and Museum, as they have Education Specialist, if you have questions about education programs, teacher workshops, National History Day or other education matters.
Second, Reagan Presidential Library and Museum has CAB. CAB is a team of Volunteer educators,ranging from classroom teachers to curriculum specialist and district administrators, who advise and ensure that our education initiatives meet that rigorous demand of local, state and national academic standards. The Members of CAB represent outstanding educators and thinkers from across the country
With the placement of education specialists, education programs are being operated in more active and professional ways. And owing to the participation of education specialists such as CAB, the education programs of Presidential libraries are being upgraded.
Since 1987, Presidential records has been transferred to Public Record Office and Acts and Enforcement Ordinance on Presidential Records Management was legislated in Korea in 2007. At the end of the same year, Korea began to have Presidential Library of NAK. While education services are part of what legal function and major job description of this Library, it is short of these services in their actual operation. Exhibition, field trip, and history class for kids provided by Presidential Library of National Archive of Korea and library work-study program provided by Kim Dae-jung Yeonsei University Library are almost all of education programs of this type.On the contrary, such education programs are actively planned and operated by the US Presidential libraries. The investigation and analysis conducted through this study shows characteristics of the US Presidential libraries education programs as follows :
First, most Presidential libraries have ‘educations’ items in their programs or directly operate education programs separately for students and teachers (educators). Most of all, Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum operates education programs in the way they distinguish programs for students,teachers, and school parents from each other, plan education program by target groups, and place education-related specialists. Truman Presidential Library and Museum operate education programs by grades and Eisenhower and Carter Presidential Library and Museum built education resources in tune with characteristics of each target group in a detailed way. And education programs aimed at adults and school parents are being operated by some Presidential libraries in the US. In this way, they can benefit from education programs because these programs are being operated in specific ways by target groups.
Second, 7 Presidential libraries operate programs such as 1) Program relevant to National Historical Day, 2) The White House Decision Center program, 3) Five Star Leaders program. Of programs related to National History Day, Truman Presidential Library and Museum, Johnson Presidential Library and Museum, Clinton Presidential Library and Museum run such programs. They are designed and implemented to provide students with opportunities to learn historical content and develop research, thinking and communication skills through the study of history and provide educators with resources and training to enhance classroom teaching.
Third, Essay Contest for students and Professional Development for teachers are an active and typical education programs which can raise their participation level and sense of fulfillment through award of certificates and prizes to them. Through this Professional Development, the fields of history,public affairs and politics with creative teaching tools and primary source materials can be developed. Through Essay Contest, new profiles in courage can be discovered and therefore, acts of political courage can be researched and written about.
Fourth, the placement of education specialists makes it possible to implement education programs in more active and professional way. And with the participation of educators such as Curriculum Advisory Board, Presidential libraries education program is being upgraded. These programs are designed to engage students in learning history by providing them with the opportunity to follow active participants in history.
Through case study of the US Presidential libraries education programs, the following education programs are to be suggested.
First, visit programs are suggested. These are implemented in the form of field trip or work-study in Korea but it can lead to passive implementation of the programs. Basic field trip and work-study need to be diversified through such programs as school tour, field trip and museum tour and they need to be more detailed and experience-oriented through such programs as docent guided tour and self guided tours. And it is also necessary to diversify on-line visit programs as well as field visit.
Second, programs to link records to curriculum and the formation of curriculum committee is suggested. To be more specific, 1) It is suggested that in-depth study resources be built as well as data base of resources which are linked to curriculum for students and teachers with utilization of Presidential records. Separation of at least three grades consisting of elementary, junior high,and high school, or five grades consisting of stages pre-school, lower and higher grades of elementary school, junior high school, and high school, or seven grades consisting of the mentioned five grades plus college students and the general adults can be suggested for this purpose. While only on-line History Class of elementary school level is being operated in Korea for now, building of data base linking Presidential records to social, cultural, and economic study resources as well as basic history education can be suggested.
2) For this purpose, it is necessary to build Curriculum Advisory Board. Curriculum committee is a team of volunteer educators covering classroom teachers, curriculum specialist and district administrators, etc.
Third, development of history programs with utilization of Presidential records is suggested. Programs to use records as they are plus programs to utilize records can be brought up as two possible ways to make this suggestion feasible. To be more specific, 1) Programs to search and read records collected by Presidential libraries and education of users in terms of library usage. 2) Record utilization programs such as study of history related to certain Presidents, study of history based on categorization by years and times, and study of history by special events can be proposed. It is also suggested that programs to utilize records collected by libraries such as writing essay on specific subjects be expanded and deepened.
Presidential records are important resources for history education but they are not provided through school curriculum. Therefore, it is necessary to develop history education program with utilization of those records. Unlike in the US, Presidential Library is part of National Archives in Korea.For this reason, active role of Presidential Library of National Archive of Korea is demanded.
Forth, training and placement of Presidential records education specialists is suggested. This means it is necessary to train and place specialists who can build education program and conduct direct and indirect education with quality of educators, record specialists, and librarian teachers in combination. They are differentiated from record specialists. They are the ones who can conduct basic user education of how to use records of record centers and professional service education of how to utilize in-depth records.
Overall, the availability of education programs at Presidential libraries is absolutely necessary because Presidential libraries hold lots of raw materials of history. Therefore, it is to be expected that education programs identified, analyzed, and suggested through this study will provide basic resources for planning and pursuit of education programs and further studies of the similar subjects by the future Presidential libraries and individual record centers.
8. Dwight D
9. Fisher Linda 1991
10. Franklin D
12. George W
14. Gerald R
15. Harry S
28. Lyndon B
39. William J
[Table 1.] A list of the US Presidential libraries
[Fig. 1.] The functions of Presidential Library of National Archives of Korea
[Table 2.] The Classification of the US Presidential libraries education programs by target groups
[Table 3.] A list of the education program of the US Presidential libraries
[Fig. 2.] Operation ratio of major education programs
[Table 4.] Education Programs of Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum
[Table 5.] Carter Center's Teacher Resource Center programs