A Study on the Operation Mechanism of Ongnu, the Astronomical Clock in
- Author: Kim Sang Hyuk, Lee Yong Sam, Lee Min Soo
- Organization: Kim Sang Hyuk; Lee Yong Sam; Lee Min Soo
- Publish: Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences Volume 28, Issue1, p79~91, 15 March 2011
Ongnu(Jade Clepsydra; also called Heumgyeonggaknu)is a water clock was made by Jang Yeong-silin 1438. It is not only an automatic water clock that makes the sound at every hour on the hour by striking bell, drum and gong, but also an astronomical clock that shows the sun's movement over time. Ongnu‘spower mechanism used is a water-hammering method applied to automatic time-signal device. The appearance of Ongnuis modeled by Gasan(pasted-paper imitation mountain) and Binpungdo(landscape of farming work scene) is drawn at the foot of the mountain. The structure of Ongnuis divided into the top of the mountain, the foot of the mountain and the flatland. There located are sunmovement device, Ongnyeo(jade female immortal; I) and Four gods (shaped of animal-like immortals) at the top of the mountain, Sasin(jack hour) and Musa(warrior) at the foot of the mountain, and Twelve gods, Ongnyeo(II) and Gwaninon the flatland. In this study, we clearly and systematically understood the time-announcing mechanism of each puppet.Also, we showed the working mechanism of the sun-movement device. Finally, we completely established the 3D model of Ongnubased on this study.
Ongnu(Jade Clepsydra) , Heumgyeonggak , Jang Yeong-sil , astronomical clock
For the kings of
Joseondynasty, astronomical observation was very important in politics. Understanding of the precise movement of celestial bodies was enabled by using various astronomical instruments including large and small size Ganui(simplified armillary sphere), Honui(armillary sphere), Honsang(celestial globe), Angbuilgu(hemispherical sundial), Ilseongjeongsiui(sun-and-star time determining instrument), Gyupyo(gnomon), Jagyeongnu(striking clepsydra) and so on. However, most of the astronomical instruments were installed in the back garden of the palace and thus it was inconvenient for the king to check the time instantly.1Thus, Heumgyeonggakwas built at the west side of Cheonchujeon(the office of the king) and Ongnu(jade clepsydra; also called Heumgyeonggaknu)after the name of the building in which it was installed) was installed in it so that the king could check the time immediately.2 Ongnuwas made by Jang Yeong-silwho was also made various kinds of astronomical instruments such as Ganuiin 1438 following the order of King Sejong(1418~1450). Kim Don(1385~1440) wrote the record about the completion of Heumgyeonggak.According to Sejong sillok(history book during Sejongera) Heumgyeonggakwas built by the strange scale and design which were prepared by King Sejong.3This indicates that King Sejonghimself might have been deeply involved in the fabrication of Ongnufrom the beginning.
Previous studies about
Ongnuincluding Jeon (1963, 1994, 1998), Needham et al. (1986), Hahn & Nam (1997) and Nam (2002) were interpreted the relevant literature and introduced the applied technology. Recently, Kim (2007) and Lee et al. (2009) worked on the design of the floor arrangement. In addition, Kim (2009) and Kim et al. (2010) analyzed the mechanical puppet instrument in Ongnuand stated that it might have affected the puppet instrument of Yesandae(moving Sandae.comprehensive moving stage for puppet play direction) used in 18th century. According to Hong (1998), Sandaemay be the stage setting reflecting Korean culture and history of the long period from the Three Kingdom Period to Goryeoand JoseonEras. Hence, understanding the moving puppet of Ongnuas one of the development procedure of the puppet that used to be installed on Sandaemeans that the tradition of Gasanand the puppet instrument might have affected the time-signaling puppet of Ongnu.
On the other hand, the operation mechanism of
Ongnuwas independently introduced in ‘ History of Technology Development in Joseon’ in North Korea (History of Technology Development in JoseonCompilation Committee 1997). The studies conducted in North Korea mainly reflect the analysis of the power transmission mechanism by Needham et al. (1986). However, the design and the conceptual illustration of the inner operation instrument were firstly introduced, which helped overall understanding of Ongnu.In this study, we analyzed the outward structure and detailed operation structure of Ongnubased on the records in Sejong sillokwhich introduces the operation structure in details. Additionally, we completed the schematic diagrams of each part and the overall 3-dimensional reconstruction image and thus understood the operation mechanism organically.
1Sejong sillok, 80:5a:line 11.
2Sejong sillok, 80:5a:line 11~12.3Sejong sillok, 80:5a:line 6.
3Sejong sillok, 80:5a:line 6.
The outward structure and operation structure of
Ongnuwere described in Sejong sillok.4The records shows the specifications and detailed operation mechanisms including the operating principle of Ongnu,the operation of the sun movement device, the Ongnyeos(I) (jade female immortals) and Four gods (Shaped of animal-like immortals) at the top of the mountain, the operation of Sibodae(time signal platform) and the time-signaling puppet, the operation of Ongnyeos(II) and Twelve gods (shaped of animal-like immortals) on the flatland and the operation of Nusudae(supply of water platform) (Table 1). This chapter introduce the records from the literature about Ongnuand the translation by Jeon (1998) as well as the related technological aspects (2.1~2.7).5
The original record about the dimension and operating principle of
Ongnuis as follows:
A paseted-paper “mountain” about 7Cheok high is set up within the Humgyeonggak with the timekeeping wheel of the Ongnu, which is set to rotate by means of falling water.
Ongnuwas installed at the center inside Heumgyeonggak.The outward appearance of Ongnucan be distinguished into Gasan(M), the horizontal plane (H) and the base (B) (Fig. 1). Mechanism wheels were installed inside Gasanand these wheels was by water-hammering method. The water-hammering method used for this might have affected the operating method of the
water-operation method armillary clocks fabricated in 1657 and 1669 (Kim 2007). Hahn & Nam (1997) assumed that a sino-arabic inkling vessel was used for the water-hammering instrument applied to
Ongnuand thus the water-hammering instruments in the later times might have adopted a similar method.
The record analysis implies that
Ongnu(water clock) and the mechanism wheels were inside the mountain, but what was referred to as Ongnuincluded the water clock, the mechanism wheel device and the base in the mountain and the description reflected that concept. Gasanwas composed of pasted (starched) paper and the height was 7 cheok.Generally, Chucheokscale is used for the fabrication dimensions of the astronomical instruments and measurement equipments. However, the height of Gasanpresented here was not related to measurement equipments, the scale, cheok,was considered as the Yeongjocheokwhich was used for the construction of buildings. Hence, applying the Yeongjocheokvalue of 1 cheokwhich was 30.7 cm, the calculation results in 214.9 cm of the height. Assuming the height of the base and the horizontal plane to be 3 cheok(92.1 cm), the overall height becomes 317 cm. Various gear instruments composed of the water clock, mechanism wheels and the water wheel with the overflow function were to be operated inside Ongnu.
The original record about the sun movement device in
Sejong sillokis as follows:
A golden image of the sun, made out of a cannonball, is provided to move across the middle of the mountain surrounded by multicolored cloud. The sun makes its daily revolution, appearing at the rim of the mountain at dawn and hiding behind it at dusk. The inclination of the sun varies depending upon the polar distance while its rise and set follow that of the true sun for each of the fortnightly periods concerned.
The record stated that there was a golden image of the sun which was the size of a cannonball.6The sun device represented the time in a day. In
Honsangwhich was produced in a similar era, an ecliptic ring was installed and the sun device was hung on the ecliptic ring. The movement of the sun in a year was represented by pulling the thread and the sun device was designed to be moved backward about 1 degree per day on the ecliptic. Considering such as situation at that time, it can be assumed that an ecliptic ring was installed in Gasanof Ongnuand the movement of the sun in a day was represented along the ecliptic ring.7
The record, “The inclination of the sun varies depending upon the polar distance while its rise and set follow that of the true sun for each of the fortnightly periods concerned,” allows to assume the existence of an ecliptic ring in
Ongnu.The movement of the ecliptic ring and the sun device indicated the variation of the sunrise and sunset directions and the meridian altitude depending on the seasons. Hence, although Ongnuwas a water clock, it played the role of an astronomical clock representing the actual movement of the sun.
The original record about the
Ongnyeos(I) and Four gods at the top of the mountain in Sejong sillokis as follows:
Below the imitation sun stand, four female immortals placed at the four cardinal points, each with a golden bell in hand. At the beginning of each of the three morning double hours ranging from In to Jin, the immortal in the east jingles the bell, followed by the next immortal to the west for the next three double hours, and similarly by those to the north and the south by turns. At the four cardinal points on the ground stand the Four gods, each facing the central mountain. The first of the Four gods, the Blue Dragon, faces north at the double four of In, south at Myo, and again west at Sa. Next, the Red Bird faces east, and so on.
There were Four
Ongnyeos(I) and Four gods at the top of the mountain. The four Ongnyeos(I) were located above the Four gods and they signaled the time by shaking the golden bell. Fig. 2 shows the working mechanism of Ongnyeo(I) and Cheongryong. Cheongryong(Blue Dragon or Blue-Green Dragon)8 and Ongnyeo(I) faced each other. Cheongryongmade a right turn by 90 degrees at every 1 Sijin(double hours in modern time) and it turned back to the original position to face Ongnyeo(I) after passing the angles corresponding to the times, In (tiger, 03~05), Myo(hare, 05~07) and Jin(dragon, 07~09).9 In other words, the Ongnyeo(I) located at the east side was to take charge of the time corresponding to 3 Sijin out of the whole 12 Sijin(twelve double hours).
At the moment when the time is changed,
Ongnyeo(I) signaled the time by shaking the golden bell at her hand. The signals were given at every Cho(beginnings double hours) and Jeong(mid-points double hours), which
means that the hammering signals were generated in the interval of one modern hour. The operation of the
Ongnyeo(I) at the south, west and north as well as Jujak(Red Bird or Vermillion Bird)10, Baekho(White Tiger)11 and Hyeonmu(Black Tortoise or Dark Warrior)12 was the same with the operation of Cheongryong(Table 2).
The original record about the time signal platform and the operation of the time signal puppets in
Sejong sillokis as follows:
At the southern foot of this mountain stands a high platform where an “hour jack” (Sasin) stands turning his back to the mountain, while three warriors, all in armor, are arranged in such a way that the first one, carrying an iron hammer, stands in the east facing west; the second one, carrying a drumstick, stands near the west facing east; and the third one, carry a gong stick, also stands in the west facing east. At each double hour, the hour jack turns to face the bell man and they strike their respective instruments at each night watch.
Sibodae(time signal platform) was located at the south part of the foot of the mountain. Sasin(hour jack) and three Musas(warriors) were on Sibodae. Jongin(striking bell puppet, ⓑ) at the right side of Sasin, Goin(striking drum puppet, ⓓ) and Jeongin(striking gong puppet, ⓖ) at the left. They rang the bell at every hour and stroke the drum and gong at every Gyeong-JeomTime. Sasin was directed to look at Jonginwhen the bell rang and Goin and Jeonginwhen the drum and gong rang (Fig.3 ). In other words, the setting included the theatrical element that the Musanotified the time responding to the signal received from Sasin.
Such a theatrical context can be also found in the actions of the
Gangtaegon(angler), the Seonnye(Taoist fairy) and the young body that appear in Yesandae(Kim 2009). The stage of Gasanin Yesandaealso appears in Ongnuin the same manner. Gangtaegonplayed the role of controlling the motion of the Seonnyeand the young body, which is also found in the relationship between Sasinand Musain Ongnu.Hence, the common characters such as Gangtaegonand Sasin,and the Seonnye and Ongnyeoas well as the common space settings can be considered as the theatrical direction based on the common motif of Ongnuand Yesandae. Sejong sillokindicates that the time signal system of Ongnuwas basically similar to that of Jagyeongnu(striking clepsydra). The signal at every double-hour was made by striking the bell in Jagyeongnu.For Gyeong-JeomTime, the drum and gong were stricken at every Gyeong(divied night into five equal parts) and Jeom (divied Gyeonginto five equal parts) (Table 3). Different from the striking of Jagyeongnusystem, the drum and gong were stricken for 5 times repeatedly from 1- Gyeongand 3- Jeomto 5- Gyeongand 3-Jeom in Dangjongbeop(rule of striking bell) that was established in the first year of King Yejong(1468~1469) (1469) (Nam 1995). It is assumed that the time-signaling method of Ongnuin the time of King Sejongmight have followed the striking method of Jagyeongnu.
The original record about
Ongnyeo(II) and Twelve gods in Sejong sillokis as follows:
On the level ground are Twelve gods occupying their respective positions and behind them are holes. At the hour of Ja, the hole behind the Rat open while an immortal with a time tablet (Sipae) comes out and the Rat stands still. The work is done by the Ox at the double hour of Chuk with a similar performance, and so on down the successive double hours.
The visualization of the time in
Ongnuwas demonstrated by the operation mechanism of Ongnyeos(II) and Twelve gods (Fig.4 ). Having Gasanat the center, Twelve gods were prostrating at the twelve directions of the flatland. Ongnyeo(II) came up with the Sipae(time dial) for the time, and then one animal god corresponding to the time among the Twelve gods stood up. Ongnyeo(II) was to come out, opening the hole at the rear side of the Twelve gods. One Sijinlater, the next Ongnyeo(II) hid herself beneath the hole, and the corresponding one among the
Twelve gods prostrated once again. Later at the next hour,
Ongnyeo(II) corresponding to the time came up with the Sipae for the time and the corresponding animal god performed the action repeatedly.
Ongnyeo(II) came up with the individual Sipaeon which the letter corresponding to the Twelve gods was written, 12 Ongnyeo(II) were waiting inside and came out through the hole. It is also assumed from the actions of the Twelve gods such as prostrating and standing that the structure was designed so that the animal gods could be directed to wear cloth. In addition, the structure in which Ongnyeo(II) came out through a hole may indicate the interlocked structure between the appearance of Ongnyeo(II) and the opening-closing of the hole. The Twelve gods were arranged clockwise when viewed from the top of Gasan.
The original record about
Nusudaeand escapement in Sejong sillokis as follows:
At the south point is located another platform carrying an “advisory vessel”, which lies on its side when empty, stands upright if half-full with water, and falls over again if filled to the brim. All these are performed completely automatically without any help from anyone.
Nusudae(water supply platform) was located at the right south and controlled by Gwanin. Nusudaewas the core device that made the time accurate in Ongnu. Gwaninsupplied a certain amount of water through a golden bottle in Nusudae,which follows the water-hammering method in which the water wheel was to be moved by a certain amount of water (Fig. 5).13 As already shown in the Chinese Shui yun i hsiang t'aisystem structure, the rotation of the water wheel could be controlled by supplying a certain amount of water hanging a weight. Such an escapement technology by which the wheel movement speed was precisely controlled was the key technology of water-hammering method water clock.
The original record about
Binpungdoin Sejong sillokis as follows:
Around the mountain is an enclosure with painting of rural scenery in the four seasons, and wood carvings of men, birds, and plants displaying the labors undertaken by the people in the different seasons.
The decorations of
Ongnu, Gasanwere the figuration of the drawings of Sigyeong Binpungdo(landscape of hard farming work scene). Binpungdoillustrated the life of common people based on Sigyeongwhich is a Confucianism scripture. Binpungchilwoldowere the drawings that expressed the contents of Sigyeong Binpungchilwolpyeonthat were the poems in the form of Wolryeong(monthly table of the regular annual events of farm family or the country, separately recorded for each month) where the life of agriculture and sericulture, the lifeworks of the people in Chouera of Chinese history, and the relevant customs were recited. In 1424, King Sejongordered to draw the pictures expressing the hard and difficult life of the people of the country in the form of Wolryeong,imitating Binpungchilwoldoand Muildo(the pictures based on the contents of Seogyeong Muilpyeon)of China (Jeong 2000).
Hence, the picture that was drawn on
Gasanwas Binpungchilwoldothat was newly produced in Joseon(Fig. 6).14 Binpungchilwolpyeonon Gasanexpressed the landscape of spring at the east, summer at the south, autumn at the west, and winter at the north. Wood carvings of man, bird, animal, grass and tree were additionally installed on it. The theatrical direction was added to make harmony among Four gods, Twelve gods, Gwanin, Sasin, Musas,and Ongnyeos(I, II) so that they could be expressed as a three-dimensional shape in Ongnu Gasan.
4Sejong sillok, 80:5a:line 5~6a:line 8.
5In the Jeon (1998)’s translation, proper noun is changed Romanization, and white Italic.
6Joseon 17~18 centuries, Lead or Inon Ball, size: 9~60 mm (Pictorial Sketches of Collections ROK ARMY MUSEUM, 1990. 12., Korea Military Academy, p. 33)
7Needham et al. (1986)’s presume: “The motion of the sun could have been taken directly from an axle driven by the clepsydrally released balls” 8Lexical meaning is a blue dragon but it explaining, in accordance with Oriental civilization, a imaginary apotheosized animal which is combined with several animal's specific parts such as hands of tiger, neck of snake and so on. It occasionally called as "Blue Dragon" or "Blue-Green Dragon."
8Lexical meaning is a blue dragon but it explaining, in accordance with Oriental civilization, a imaginary apotheosized animal which is combined with several animal's specific parts such as hands of tiger, neck of snake and so on. It occasionally called as "Blue Dragon" or "Blue-Green Dragon."
9Ja (rat, 23~01), Chuk (ox, 01~03), In (tiger, 03~05), Myo (hare 05~07), Jin (dragon, 07~9), Sa (snake, 09~11), O (horse, 11~13), Mi (sheep, 13~15), Sin (monkey, 15~17), You (cock, 17~19) Sul (dog, 19~21), Hae (boar, 21~23).
10Lexical meaning is identified as oriental phoenix but it imaged as a imaginary apotheosize red cock in the cultural history of Korea. It occasionally called as "Red Bird" or "Vermillion Bird." 11Lexical meaning is a white tiger but it explaining, in accordance with Oriental civilization, a imaginary apotheosized animal which is combined with tiger and dragon. It occasionally called as just "White Tiger." 12 Lexical meaning is a black tortoise but it explaining, in accordance with Oriental civilization, a imaginary apotheosized animal which is imaged that heads of tortoise and snake hung on both sides of tortoise shaped body each. It occasionally called as "Black Tortoise" or "Dark Warrior."
11Lexical meaning is a white tiger but it explaining, in accordance with Oriental civilization, a imaginary apotheosized animal which is combined with tiger and dragon. It occasionally called as just "White Tiger."
12 Lexical meaning is a black tortoise but it explaining, in accordance with Oriental civilization, a imaginary apotheosized animal which is imaged that heads of tortoise and snake hung on both sides of tortoise shaped body each. It occasionally called as "Black Tortoise" or "Dark Warrior."
13The figure of Nusudae is the schematic diagram to express the operation. Through the follow-up study, Nusudae and the specific mechanism of the inner device will be investigated. 14Lee, Bang Un (1761~?)’s Binpungchilwoldo (Rice in Korean History, New Millennium Special Exhibition, 2000. 7., The National Museum of Korea, pp. 128-129).
14Lee, Bang Un (1761~?)’s Binpungchilwoldo (Rice in Korean History, New Millennium Special Exhibition, 2000. 7., The National Museum of Korea, pp. 128-129).
The key characteristics of the time signal puppets of
Ongnuare shown in Table 4. Ongnuwas divided into the top of the mountain, the foot of the mountain and the flatland and the puppet name, puppet number, main characteristics and the position were marked. Among the time signal puppets, Four gods and Twelve gods have the shapes of animals, and other puppets are in the form of persons wearing the corresponding official clothes or costumes. The 3D modeling of the time signal puppets was carried out based on these constitutional contents.15
Among the time signal puppets, Four gods and Twelve gods are shown as gods in the form of typical animals. Such forms are also found in the stone objects located around the stone steps in the
GeunjeongjeonHall of GyeongbokPalace (Cultural Heritage Administration 2000). The costumes of Sasin, Musas( Jongin, Goin, Jeongin), and Gwaninfollowed the fashion style of the early JoseonDynasty. The figures of Ongnyeo(I, II) were designed based on the Seonnyefound in traditional drawings. Fig. 7 shows the main time signal puppets.
The main structure of
Ongnuis shown in Table 5. Gasanwas divided into detailed instruments including the imitation mountain (Gasan),the sun movement device, and the base. The contents of the theatrical direction and motion of each structure were expressed to help the 3D modeling of the entire Gasan. Sibodaeand Nusudaeof Ongnuhad the functions of overseeing and notifying the time and maintaining the time to be accurate. Thus, the overall constitution of Sibodaewas designed to be in the form of Eojwa(king´s chair) of GyeongbokPalace upon the embankment. Since Eojwawas the core space for a king to care for the state affairs or to carry out the national policy, the design can be well corresponding to the observation of the time from the sky and the notification performed on Sibodae and Nusudae.
The sun movement device consisted of the ecliptic ring and the sun device. The ecliptic ring was established as a traditional armillary sphere part and as a movement device to which the armillary sphere mechanism was added to the top. The overall mapping of the flatland was carried out referring to the pictures such as
Binpungchilwoldo.The round shape of the ecliptic ring on Gasanwas extended to the round shape of the mountain and the base supporting the flatland was designed in a square shape considering the view to the universe at that time which was ‘the sky is a circle and the earth is a square.’ The overall outer appearance of Ongnuis shown in Figs. 8 and 9.
153D Design by Park, Jae-Hyeon.
The water wheel of
Ongnuwas operated by the water-hammering method. The motion of the time signal puppets and the operation of the sun device were empowered by the dynamic power of the water wheel. Needham et al. (1986) assumed that the power technology applied
Ongnuwas by the buoyancy of the supplied water. In other words, they assumed that the force generated when the buoy floated served as the rotational force. Such a method was the characteristic constitution of the water clock designed by Al-Jajari of the Islamic world in 13th century (Hill 1989). However, careful analysis of the records found in Sejong Sillokmakes it probable that the dynamic power is by the water wheel rotating at a constant speed like in Chinese Shui yun i hsiang t’aithat was developed earlier. Hence, the power transmission system inside Ongnuwas constituted as shown in Fig. 10.
Producing a constant dynamic power based on the water-hammering method was realized by the working mechanism of
Nusudaethat had the escapement system.
Water was supplied from the water clock in
Nusudae.A weight was hung at the handle of the bowl so that a constant amount of water could be contained in the bowl in Nusudae.Thus, the mass of the water contained in the bowl was the same with the weight hung at the handle and the dynamic power generated here was transmitted to the water wheel.
[Fig. 10.] Keys map of Ongnu’s inside and power supply mechanism of Ongnu. WC: water clock WW: water wheel E: escapement W1: wheel 1 (base) W2: wheel 2 (time signal platform) W3: wheel 3 (top of a mountain).
The power transmitted to the water wheel operated the mechanism wheel of
Ongnu.There were rotational disks from the first level to the third level in the mechanism wheel. The rotation wheel at the first level (W1) transmitted the power to the Twelve Ongnyeos(II) and Twelve gods on the flatland. The rotation wheel at the second level (W2) transmitted the power to the time signal puppets device. The rotation wheel at the third level (W3) transmitted the power to Four Ongnyeos(I) and Four gods. The top level transmitted the power to the sun movement device. In the follow-up studies, the specific operation mechanisms of the inner structures of Ongnuwill be analyzed in details through the analysis of the mechanisms of Shui yun i hsiang t’ai.
Fig. 11 is the flow chart that describes the overall operation and working information of
Ongnuin a manner that is easy to understand. The specific operations are introduced for each floor of Gasan.At the first floor, the visual information was provided to notify the time with Twelve gods. At the second floor, the motion of the time signal puppets device and the visual information and the auditory information by hammering of the bell, drum, and gong were simultaneously realized. At the third floor, the visual and auditory time information was provided by the bell sound of Ongnyeos(I) and the motion of Four gods. At the top floor, the theatrical direction was realized to visualize the daily movement of the sun and the annual movement of the sun on the ecliptic plane. Ongnuwas an automatic water clock installed in Heumgyeonggak.The name “Heumgyeong”which means ‘respect’ was from the sentence in YojeonSection of Seogyeong,‘Respect as to heaven and let the people know the time and seasons.’16 Binpungdofor the four seasons were drawn at the four directions of the Gasanof Ongnu.King Sejongwatched the difficult situations of the farmers through the pictures of Binpungdoand practiced the meaning of Heumgyeongby means of Ongnu.
We understood the overall outer structure and the principle of the inner power structure of
Ongnubased on the literature record found in Sejong sillok. Ongnuwas a novel type automatic water clock completed by Jang Yeong-sil4 years after he fabricated and operated Jagyeongnu.There was a basic water clock using a constant flow of water in Heumgyeonggakand the visual and auditory time information was notified through the time signal puppets. In addition, the astronomical clock was operated to express the time in a day and the annual motion of the sun through the operation of the sun move-
ment device. The escapement system that generated power by operating the water wheel through the constant water flow indicated that the water supply and the water hammering method of Chinese
Shui yun i hsiang t’aiwas similarly applied. Jagyeongnu,operated in 1434, consisted of three puppets hammering the bell, drum, and gong. On the contrary, in Ongnu,a total of 37 puppets (including the animal-like gods) were demonstrated in a large scale including Ongnyeos(I) and Four gods at the top of the mountain, Sasinand Musas (Jongin,Goin, Jeongin)at the foot of the mountain, and Ongnyeos(II), Twelve gods and Gwaninon the flatland. The motion of these puppets was similar to the puppet play in Yesandaein JoseonEra. This indicates that the theatrical element of Sandae developed since the Three Kingdom Period was applied to Ongnu Gasan.
Three-dimensional modeling was performed with respect to the structure of
Ongnuand the outer appearance recovery model was completed. The detailed appearance of the individual time signal puppets, Sibodae, Japsangs and Binpungdoof Gasanwas expressed. The costumes and the design of the puppets were realized in the fashion of JoseonEra. These modeling works were reflected to the basic design Ongnu.In addition, through the analysis and realization of the structure, and the optimized 3D model was completed. As regards the inner structure of Ongnu,the role and structure of the water clock, Nusudae,water wheel and the gear constitution for each floor were presented. This work allowed the provision of the fundamental data for the detailed design of the inner structure of Ongnu.Further study on the operation mechanism of the inner instruments is required for the restoration of the Ongnuprototype. Angbuilgu仰釜日晷, hemispherical sundial Baekho白虎, White Tiger Binpungchilwoldo?風七月圖 Binpungchilwolpyeon?風七月篇 Binpungdo?風圖, landscape of hard farming work scene Cheok尺, scale unit Cheonchujeon千秋殿, the office of the king Cheongryong靑龍, Blue Dragon or Blue-Green Dragon Cheonhyeong天衡, oriental escapement device Cho初, beginnings double hours Chou周 Chucheok周尺; 1尺 = 20.7 cm Daehogun大護軍, the name of a high public office Dangjongbeop撞鐘法, rule of striking bell Eojwa御座, king´s chair Ganui簡儀, simplified armillary sphere Gasan假山, pasted-paper imitation mountain Goin鼓人, striking drum puppet Gwanin官人 Gyeong-JeomTime 更點時間; Gyeong更, divied night into five equal parts; Jeom點, divied Gyeonginto five equal parts Gyupyo圭表, gnomon Heumgyeong欽敬 Heumgyeonggak欽敬閣 Honsang渾象, celestial globe Honui渾儀, armillary sphere; also called Honcheonui渾天儀 Hyeonmu玄武, Black Tortoise or Dark Warrior Ilseongjeongsiui日星定時儀, sun-and-star time determining instrument Jagyeongnu自擊漏, striking clepsydra Jang Yeong-sil蔣英實 Jeong正, mid-points double hours Jeongin鉦人, striking gong puppet Jongin鐘人, striking bell puppet Jujak朱雀, Red Bird or Vermillion Bird Kim Don金墩(1385~1440) Muildo無逸圖, the pictures based on the contents of Seogyeong書經 Muilpyeon無逸篇 Musas武士, warriors Nusudae漏水臺, supply of water platform Nusudae漏水臺, water supply platform Ongng玉漏, Jade Clepsydra; also called Heumgyeonggaknu欽敬閣漏 Ongnyeos玉女, jade female immortals Sandae山臺 Sasin司辰, jack hour Sejong世宗, King SeJong(1418~1450) of Joseon Seogyeong書經 Shui yun i hsiang t’ai水運儀象臺 Sibodae時報臺, time signal platform Sigyeong詩經 Sijin時辰, 1 Sijin= double hours in modern time; Ja(子, rat, 23~01), Chuk(丑, ox, 01~03), In(寅, tiger, 03~05), Myo(卯, hare 05~07), Jin(辰, dragon, 07~9), Sa(巳, snake, 09~11), O(午, horse, 11~13), Mi(未, sheep, 13~15), Sin(申, monkey, 15~17), You(酉, cock, 17~19) Sul(戌, dog, 19~21), Hae(亥, boar, 21~23) Sipae時牌, time dial Soho小壺, small water bottle Uigi倚器, slanted bowl Wolryeong月令, monthly table of the regular annual events of farm family or the country, separately recorded for each month Yejong睿宗, King Yejong(1468~1469) of Joseon Yeongjocheok營造尺; 1尺= 30.7 cm Yesandae曳山臺, moving Sandae.comprehensive moving stage for puppet play direction Yojeon堯典
16Sejong sillok, 80:5b:line 13~14.
[Table 1.] Records in Sejong sillok (80:5a~6a).
[Fig. 1.] Keys map Ongnu. M: Gasan (imitation mountain) H: horizontal B: base.
[Fig. 2.] Working mechanism of Ongnyeo (I) and Cheongryong.
[Table 2.] Working mechanism of Ongnyeo (I) and Four gods.
[Fig. 3.] Working mechanism of Sasin Jongin Goin and Jeongin.
[Fig. 4.] Working mechanism of Ongnyeo (II) and Twelve gods.
[Table 3.] Time signal of Gyeong-Jeom.
[Fig. 5.] Working mechanism of Gwanin and Nusudae. A: Uigi B: Nusuho C: tube D: Soho E: string (Cheonhyeong device connection line).
[Fig. 6.] Binpungchilwoldo in Joseon.
[Table 4.] Characteristics of time signal puppets.
[Table 5.] Characteristics of device.
[Fig. 7.] Time signal puppets.
[Fig. 8] Sibodae (left) and Nusudae (right).
[Fig. 9.] Three-dimensional modeling cut of Ongnu.
[Fig. 10.] Keys map of Ongnu’s inside and power supply mechanism of Ongnu. WC: water clock WW: water wheel E: escapement W1: wheel 1 (base) W2: wheel 2 (time signal platform) W3: wheel 3 (top of a mountain).
[Fig.11.] Working mechanism flow chart of Ongnu.