The Optical Design of Probe-type Microscope Objective for Intravital Laser Scanning CARS Microendoscopy

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  • ABSTRACT

    A stack of gradient-index (GRIN) rod lenses cannot be used for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering(CARS) microendoscopy for insertion to internal organs through a surgical keyhole with minimal invasiveness. That’s because GRIN lens has large amount of inherent chromatic aberrations in spite of absolutely requiring a common focus for pump and Stokes beam with each frequency of ωp and ωS. For this endoscopic purpose, we need to develop a long slender probe-type objective, namely probe-type microscope objective (PMO). In this paper, we introduce the structure, the working principle, and the design techniques of PMO which is composed of a probe-type lens module (PLM) and an adaptor lens module(ALM). PLM is first designed for a long slender type and ALM is successively designed by using several design parameters from PLM for eliminating optical discords between scanning unit and PLM. A combined module is optimized again to eliminate some coupling disparities between PLM and ALM for the best PMO. As a result, we can obtain a long slender PMO with perfectly diffraction-limited performance for pump beam of 817 nm and Stokes beam of 1064 nm.


  • KEYWORD

    Microscope probe objective , Microendoscopy , Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering , CARS microscopy , Two photon fluorescence microscopy , (220.0220) Optical design and fabrication , (110.0180) Microscopy , (220.3620) Lens system design , (300.6230) Spectroscopy , coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering

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  • [FIG. 1.] Resonant and non-resonant contributions for CARSsignal. (A) Resonant CARS. (B) Non-resonant CARS due tothe third-order susceptibility where the dotted lines indicatevirtual states. (C) Two-photon resonance of pump beamassociated with the excited electronic state.
    Resonant and non-resonant contributions for CARSsignal. (A) Resonant CARS. (B) Non-resonant CARS due tothe third-order susceptibility where the dotted lines indicatevirtual states. (C) Two-photon resonance of pump beamassociated with the excited electronic state.
  • [FIG. 2.] A typical schematic diagram of an intravital laserscanning CARS microscope with probe-type microscopeobjective (PMO) which is composed of adaptor lens module(ALM) and probe lens module (PLM) where E-CARSTPEF and SFG denote epi-dectected CARS two-photonexcitation fluorescence and sum frequency generationsignal respectively. D.M. dichroic mirror.
    A typical schematic diagram of an intravital laserscanning CARS microscope with probe-type microscopeobjective (PMO) which is composed of adaptor lens module(ALM) and probe lens module (PLM) where E-CARSTPEF and SFG denote epi-dectected CARS two-photonexcitation fluorescence and sum frequency generationsignal respectively. D.M. dichroic mirror.
  • [FIG. 3.] A short type microscope objective where H and H’denotes first and second principle point and EFL denoteseffective focal length.
    A short type microscope objective where H and H’denotes first and second principle point and EFL denoteseffective focal length.
  • [FIG. 4.] A long slender type microscope objective which iscomposed of adaptor lens module (ALM) and probe lensmodule (PLM) where NAO denotes numerical aperture atobject side (or intermediate image side) and NA denotesnumerical aperture at image side (or sample side).
    A long slender type microscope objective which iscomposed of adaptor lens module (ALM) and probe lensmodule (PLM) where NAO denotes numerical aperture atobject side (or intermediate image side) and NA denotesnumerical aperture at image side (or sample side).
  • [FIG. 5.] A miniaturized microscope objective for CARSimaging catheter with fiber bundle which the magnificationrelationship is given to 'M' = NAO/NA = η’/η where 'M'denotes the absolute value of magnification η denotes halfthe diameter of fiber bundle and η’ denotes half field of view(FOV) . Effective focal length of this system is also given tobe 2.975 mm.
    A miniaturized microscope objective for CARSimaging catheter with fiber bundle which the magnificationrelationship is given to 'M' = NAO/NA = η’/η where  'M'denotes the absolute value of magnification η denotes halfthe diameter of fiber bundle and η’ denotes half field of view(FOV) . Effective focal length of this system is also given tobe 2.975 mm.
  • [FIG. 6.] The final form of PLM with the length of 25.5 mm andthe diameter of clear aperture of 2.94 mm where θ meansangle between horizontal dashed line and principal ray.Effective focal length of this system is given to 2.34 mm.
    The final form of PLM with the length of 25.5 mm andthe diameter of clear aperture of 2.94 mm where θ meansangle between horizontal dashed line and principal ray.Effective focal length of this system is given to 2.34 mm.
  • [FIG. 7.] The focus quality charts which are longitudinalspherical aberration (LSA) and astigmatic field curve (AFC).In charts 2.5E-4 mm denotes 0.00025 mm or 0.25 μm. T1 orS1 means the curved focus locus of tangential plane (yz) orsagittal plane (xz) for Stokes beam of 1064 nm and T2 or S2denotes for pump beam of 817 nm.
    The focus quality charts which are longitudinalspherical aberration (LSA) and astigmatic field curve (AFC).In charts 2.5E-4 mm denotes 0.00025 mm or 0.25 μm. T1 orS1 means the curved focus locus of tangential plane (yz) orsagittal plane (xz) for Stokes beam of 1064 nm and T2 or S2denotes for pump beam of 817 nm.
  • [FIG. 8.] Spot diagrams. (A) On-axis ( Strehl ratio of 0.999 andRMS wavefront of 0.006 waves for pump beam of 817 nm).(B) 0.7 field (Strehl ratio of 0.989 and RMS wavefront of0.017 waves for pump beam of 817 nm). (C) 1.0 field (Strehlratio of 0.983 and RMS wavefront of 0.021 waves for pumpbeam of 817 nm). Red and blue marks denote Stokes andpump beam respectively.
    Spot diagrams. (A) On-axis ( Strehl ratio of 0.999 andRMS wavefront of 0.006 waves for pump beam of 817 nm).(B) 0.7 field (Strehl ratio of 0.989 and RMS wavefront of0.017 waves for pump beam of 817 nm). (C) 1.0 field (Strehlratio of 0.983 and RMS wavefront of 0.021 waves for pumpbeam of 817 nm). Red and blue marks denote Stokes andpump beam respectively.
  • [FIG. 9.] The geometrical relationship between ALM andPLM.
    The geometrical relationship between ALM andPLM.
  • [FIG. 10.] An initial data for optimization which is extractedfrom Japan patents.
    An initial data for optimization which is extractedfrom Japan patents.
  • [FIG. 11.] The final form of ALM with fa of 22.503 mm D of2.356 mm θ of 3.740° η of 1.471 mm and NAO of 0.052.
    The final form of ALM with fa of 22.503 mm D of2.356 mm θ of 3.740° η of 1.471 mm and NAO of 0.052.
  • [FIG. 12.] Spot diagrams. (A) On-axis ( Strehl ratio of 1.000and RMS wavefront of 0.001 waves for pump beam of 817nm). (B) 0.7 field (Strehl ratio of 0.999 and RMS wavefront of0.005 waves for pump beam of 817 nm). (C) 1.0 field (Strehlratio of 1.000 and RMS wavefront of 0.001 waves for pumpbeam of 817 nm). Red and blue marks denote Stokes andpump beam respectively.
    Spot diagrams. (A) On-axis ( Strehl ratio of 1.000and RMS wavefront of 0.001 waves for pump beam of 817nm). (B) 0.7 field (Strehl ratio of 0.999 and RMS wavefront of0.005 waves for pump beam of 817 nm). (C) 1.0 field (Strehlratio of 1.000 and RMS wavefront of 0.001 waves for pumpbeam of 817 nm). Red and blue marks denote Stokes andpump beam respectively.
  • [FIG. 13.] The final form of probe-type microscope objective(PMO) which consists of ALM and PLM with field of view of0.22 mm and numerical aperture of 0.7 at sample side.
    The final form of probe-type microscope objective(PMO) which consists of ALM and PLM with field of view of0.22 mm and numerical aperture of 0.7 at sample side.
  • [FIG. 14.] Spot diagrams. (A) On-axis ( Strehl ratio of 0.999and RMS wavefront of 0.005 waves for pump beam of 817nm). (B) 0.7 field (Strehl ratio of 0.993 and RMS wavefront of0.014 waves for pump beam of 817 nm). (C) 1.0 field (Strehlratio of 0.995 and RMS wavefront of 0.012 waves for pumpbeam of 817 nm). Red and blue marks denote Stokes andpump beam respectively.
    Spot diagrams. (A) On-axis ( Strehl ratio of 0.999and RMS wavefront of 0.005 waves for pump beam of 817nm). (B) 0.7 field (Strehl ratio of 0.993 and RMS wavefront of0.014 waves for pump beam of 817 nm). (C) 1.0 field (Strehlratio of 0.995 and RMS wavefront of 0.012 waves for pumpbeam of 817 nm). Red and blue marks denote Stokes andpump beam respectively.