Design of Tunable Flat-top Bandpass Filter Based on Two Long-period Fiber Gratings and Core Mode Blocker

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  • ABSTRACT

    We propose a tunable flat-top bandpass filter to pass light in a customized wavelength band by using long-period fiber gratings (LPFG) structure. The LPFG structure is composed of a core mode blocker in between two LPFGs. The bandpass spectrum of the proposed structure is obtained in overlapped wavelength band of two LPFGs operating on the same modes. To analyze the properties, we introduce a mathematical matrix model for the structure. We theoretically demonstrate flexibility of the flat-top bandpass filter with various bandwidths.


  • KEYWORD

    Flat-top bandpass , Long-period fiber gratings , Core mode blocker , Matrix model , (350.2770) Gratings , (350.2460) Filters , interference , (230.2285) Fiber devices and optical amplifiers , (070.1170) Analog optical signal processing

  • I. INTRODUCTION

    In long-period fiber gratings (LPFG), a fundamental core mode and the multiple cladding modes are coupled,which all propagate in the same (forward) direction. Due to unique features of low insertion loss, low back-reflection and excellent polarization insensitivity, LPFGs have attracted great interest in the optical communications and sensor applications [1, 2]. Some researchers have studied the manufacture of the core mode blocker [3, 4], band pass filter using the core mode blocker [5-7], and tunable bandpass filter using coil heater [8, 9].

    The core mode blocker is a device to block off the propagated light in the core, and pass the propagated light in the cladding. Some researchers have developed bandpass filters using LPFGs, and some of them have studied the topics based on a core mode blocker as shown in Fig. 1. In Fig. 1, the LPFG1 is used to interact between core and cladding at resonant wavelength, and light existing in the core is extinguished by the core mode blocker. The light in the resonant wavelength is propagated through the cladding to the second LPFG. The resonant light existing in the cladding by the LPFG2 is transferred back into the core.The central points of the research are to study the physical phenomenon [3, 4] and the manufacture of the bandpass filter [5-7, 9]. However the design of the flat-top bandpass filter [11] with specific customized wavelength band using an accurate analysis model was not proposed yet.

    In the paper, we present the matrix model to analyze the

    matrix model to analyze the LPFG structures with the core mode blocker. The proposed matrix model is a useful mathematical tool to describe the properties of the structure. We analyze the physical properties of the LPFG structure with a core mode blocker by using the proposed model. By using specially coupled feature of only the same modes in overlapped wavelength region, we demonstrate the design of the flat-top bandpass filter with the customized bandwidth.

    II. THE PROPOSED MATHEMATICAL MATRIX MODEL

    The structure in Fig. 1 is modeled as the FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filter block diagram as shown in Fig.2(a). Figure 2(b) is the signal flow graph to analyze both LPFG1and LPFG2, which is called the multiport lattice filter model [10-12]. Here, D1 and D2 are the delay of the diagonal matrix, CB is matrix for core mode blocker, Eco and Ecl(i) are the E-fields (electric fields) of the fundamental core mode and the ith cladding mode, respectively. And βco and βcl(i) are the propagation constant of the fundamental core mode and the ith cladding mode for the LPFGs, L1 and L2 are the length of LPFG1 and LPFG2, and d1, d2, and db are the length for D1, D2, and CB.

    In Fig. 2(a), the E-fields coming into and out from the structure can be written to be

    image

    where

    image

    are diagonal matrices and

    image

    is a diagonal matrix with zero determinant.

    By assuming the LPFGk, (k = 1, 2) are uniform long period fiber gratings, we can easily get the matrix form of the (N+1)×(N+1) complex matrix Mk, (k = 1, 2) for the LPFGk with codirectional interactions since the LPFGk has the multiport lattice filter structure in [10] as follows:

    image

    where G(p) is (N+1)×(N+1) identity matrix except for the four entries adopted from F(p) in Fig. 2(b). The relation between G(p) and F(p) are as follows:

    image

    (Here, Bk,l denotes the (k, l) element of the matrix B.) The matrix DG represents the phase shift of the LPFG,

    image

    and

    image

    and

    image

    , Lk is the length of the LPFGk, δp is the detuning factor for the pth cladding mode, and κ p is the coupling coefficient between the fundamental core mode and the pth cladding mode [10-13].

    Note that Mk in (2) can be regarded as a multiport lattice section. Because of the decoupling property of modes, the matrices G(p) in Mk commute with each other so that the

    2×2 subsections may be interchanged freely. If LPFG1 and LPFG2 are extended as piecewise uniform LPFGs, we can also easily get the Mk using the multiport lattice filter model [10]. Now, the overall transmission coefficient tEco(out)Eco(in) with Ecl(i)(in) = 0, (1≤i≤N) is easily seen to be t = Q1,l, which is the (1,1)-element of Q.

    As shown in Fig. 2(a), after the coupled light on the LPFG1 is absorbed at CB, and then in the LPFG2, the propagated light in the cladding is coupled with the same modes from cladding to core, due to the orthogonality of modes as shown in Fig. 2(b) [10]. Because the overall transmission is calculated as the complex multiplying of two bandpass filters, we cannot get the spectrum in the core if two filters have entirely different bandpass regions.

    III. EXAMPLES

    We analytically calculated the transmission spectrum curves for the concatenated LPFGs with a core mode blocker in the following examples by computing the transmission coefficient t = Q1,l in (1). The parameters of the fiber used in these examples are as follows:

    nco = 1.449, ncl = 1.444, nai = 1, rco = 4.5㎛, rcl = 62.5㎛ where ncl is the refractive index of the cladding, nair is the refractive index of air, rco is the radius of the core, and rcl is the radius of the cladding.

       3.1. Example 1 for Uniform LPFG with Both Core Mode Blocker and Delay

    Figure 3 shows the transmission for the modes LP0i, (i= 1,?,4) in the wavelength range between 1300 nm and 1580 nm, where LPFG1 and LPFG2 have uniform gratings.Their lengths are L1 = 100Λ1 and L2 = 100Λ2, respectively,the grating period for LPFG1 is Λ1 = 441.24 ㎛, Λ2 for LPFG2 is varied (441.24 ㎛ for Fig. 3(a), 443.44 ㎛ for Fig. 3(b), 445.65 ㎛ for Fig. 3(c), and 501.28 ㎛ for Fig.3(d)) and their induced index changes are Δn1 = n2 = 0.00011,respectively. The length of the D1 and the D2 are d1 = 400 Λ1 and d2 = 400Λ1, respectively. The length of the CB is assumed to be db = 0.

    To analyze the properties of the concatenated LPFGs with the core mode blocker, we have calculated the transmission spectra along the change of the Λ2 as shown in Fig 3. Figures 3(a)-3(c) show the transmission along the overlapped region of the spectrum band of the same modes. We can only get the bandpass spectra by coupling the same modes in the overlapped region. Figure 3(d) shows the transmission for the coupling with the different modes (LP04 of LPFG1 and LP03 for LPFG2). From the result, we know that the bandpass filter cannot be obtained from coupling the different modes.

       3.2. Example 2 for Flat-top Bandpass Filters

    We can design a flat-top bandpass filter with the customized bandwidth using the property of coupling with the same modes and the overlapped band. We have synthesized

    the tunable flat-top filter by considering a single cladding mode as shown in Fig. 4. We have utilized the coupling coefficients κ and the detuning factors δ, respectively, as shown in the Figs. 4(a) and 4(b). The coupling coefficients in Fig. 4(a) can be found by the Gel’fand-Levitan-Marchenko coupled equations [14, 15].

    The κ1 in Fig. 4(a) is used for the LPFG1 and LPFG2 of Figs. 4(c)-4(f). In Fig. 4(b), the δ0 is used for the LPFG1 and LPFG2 is used the δ0 for Fig. 4(c), the δ0-50 for Fig. 4(d), the δ0-100 for Fig. 4(e), and the δ0-150 for Fig. 4(f). We have assumed the delay is d1 = d2 = 0 and the core mode blocker is CB = diag(0,1,1?,1), ideally. The 3dB bandwidth of the LPFG1 and LPFG2 is 13.9nm. In the case, we can control the bandwidth of the flat-top bandpass filter in the wavelength range less than 13.9nm± ε (where ε is a small variation by calculating the equation (1).). The 3dB bandwidth of the obtained flat-top filter in Figs. 4(c) and 4(d) are 14.2nm (ε = 0.3 nm) and 8nm, respectively.

    From the results, we can observe that the bandwidth of the bandpass is changed along the overlapped band region of the flat-top band-rejection of both LPFG1 and LPFG2. If we can make the ideal band-rejection filter, we can synthesize a sharp bandpass filter with the customized bandwidth as well as the bandpass filters with a tunable bandwidth. Especially,if the bandwidth of LPFG1 and LPFG2 aren’t overlapped as shown in Fig. 4(f), we cannot synthesize the desired filter.

    We also demonstrated the transmission along the overlapped region, when the coupling coefficients are different as shown in Figs. 4(g) and 4(h). The coupling coefficients κ1 for the LPFG1 and κ2 the LPFG2 are utilized as shown in Fig.4(a). The detuning factors δ for Figs. 4(g) and 4(h) are the same ones as for Figs. 4(c) and 4(d). We have also used the delay and the core mode blocker as above examples.

    From the Fig. 4(g) and 4(h), we have obtained similar results to Figs. 4(c) and 4(d) although the LPFG1 and LPFG2 have different magnitude levels. The 3 dB bandwidth of the LPFG2 is 14.1 nm. The 3 dB bandwidth of the obtained flat-top filter in Figs. 4(c) and 4(d) are 14.2 nm(ε = 0.1 nm) and 8 nm, respectively. The results show that the magnitude level of the flat-top bandpass filter is dependent on the magnitudes of the LPFG1 and LPFG2.

    IV. CONCLUSION

    The analytical model for the LPFG with the core mode blocker is proposed. We have also analyzed and described the physical phenomenon of the structure by using the proposed model. We have proposed a design method of the flat-top bandpass filter with customized bandwidth. We have also demonstrated, through computer simulations, the bandwidth of the flat-top filters controlled by tuning the overlapped band region.

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  • [FIG. 1.] The LPFG structure with core mode blocker.
    The LPFG structure with core mode blocker.
  • [FIG. 2.] (a) An equivalent block diagram for Fig. 1. (b) Multiport lattice filter model.
    (a) An equivalent block diagram for Fig. 1. (b) Multiport lattice filter model.
  • [fig. 3.] Λ1 = 441.24 ㎛ is fixed and Λ2 is changed ((a) Λ2 = 441.24 ㎛ (b) Λ2 = 443.44 ㎛ (c) Λ2 = 445.65㎛ and (d) Λ2 = 501.28 ㎛).
    Λ1 = 441.24 ㎛ is fixed and Λ2 is changed ((a) Λ2 = 441.24 ㎛ (b) Λ2 = 443.44 ㎛ (c) Λ2 = 445.65㎛ and (d) Λ2 = 501.28 ㎛).
  • [FIG. 4.] (a) Coupling coefficients. (b) Detuning factors. (c) The κ 1 and the δ0 are utilized for the LPFG1 and the LPFG2. (d) LPFG1 (κ 1 and δ0 is used.) and LPFG2 (κ 1 and δ0-50 is used.). (e) LPFG1 (κ 1 and δ0 is used.) and LPFG2 (κ 1 and δ0-100 is used.). (f) LPFG1 (κ 1 and δ0 is used.) and LPFG2 (κ 1 and δ0-150 is used.). (g) LPFG1 (κ 1 and δ0 is used.) and LPFG2 (κ 2 and δ0 is used.). (h) LPFG1 (κ 1 and δ0 is used.) and LPFG2 (κ 2 and δ0-50 is used.).
    (a) Coupling coefficients. (b) Detuning factors. (c) The κ 1 and the δ0 are utilized for the LPFG1 and the LPFG2. (d) LPFG1 (κ 1 and δ0 is used.) and LPFG2 (κ 1 and δ0-50 is used.). (e) LPFG1 (κ 1 and δ0 is used.) and LPFG2 (κ 1 and δ0-100 is used.). (f) LPFG1 (κ 1 and δ0 is used.) and LPFG2 (κ 1 and δ0-150 is used.). (g) LPFG1 (κ 1 and δ0 is used.) and LPFG2 (κ 2 and δ0 is used.). (h) LPFG1 (κ 1 and δ0 is used.) and LPFG2 (κ 2 and δ0-50 is used.).